Salt, Sodium and Osteoporosis

Nutrition is a primary element in direct prevention of osteoporosis. A dietapovera of calcium [Ca] and potassium [K] and excessively rich in:

  • Animal proteins
  • Sodium [Na]
  • Phosphorus [P] (or rather a Ca / P ratio <2: 1) *
  • Nervini such as caffeine and alcohol
  • Saturated fatty acids and steatorrhea

* Phosphorus competes with Calxio in intestinal absorption but it is equally true that it limits urinary excretion.

can facilitate the onset of this bone disease.

Excessive sodium food levels can increase urinary calcium excretion [Ca].

They share the same transport mechanism at the level of the proximal renal tubule, therefore, every 2300mg of filtered sodium, the urinary excretion of calcium increases by 24-60mg. It has been shown that for every gram of sodium eliminated in the urine, 26.3 mg of calcium / day are eliminated; in one year this phenomenon could lead to a 1% decrease in bone mass and a consequent increase in the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures.

The human body eliminates about 0.1-0.6g of sodium / day with the urine; whereas 1g of sodium chloride [NaCl] contains about 0.4g, the intake of 1-2g / day of sodium chloride should be more than sufficient to meet the dietary needs of this mineral. On the contrary, Italians introduce sodium in quantities 10 times higher than the recommended ration.

By reducing the intake of sodium and animal protein, the calcium requirement could be reduced by 450mg / day, while if excessive levels are introduced, the calcium requirement could exceed 2000mg / day.

To reduce the risk of osteoporosis it is necessary to intervene on the diet, reducing the intake of sodium, animal proteins and nerves, reducing (if present) the steatorrhea (especially if induced by saturated fatty acids) and increasing the consumption of fruit, vegetables ( especially with green leaves) and legumes containing calcium and potassium.

Another fundamental element to the formation and maintenance of the peak bone mass, therefore to the prevention of osteoporosis, is physical sporting activity.

Bibliography:

  • Osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases. Clinic and diagnostics. Second edition - CV Albanese and R. Passariello - 4.3.1.3 - pag 59.
  • C. Shortt, A. Madden, A. Flynn, et al. (1988) - Influence of dietary sodium intake on urinary calcium excretion in selected Irish Individuals - Eur J Clin Nutr 42: 595-603.
  • Finn SC - The skeleton crew: is calcium enough? - J Womens Health 1998 Feb; 7 (1): 31-6.
  • Nordin CBE - Calcium and Osteoporosis - Nutrition 1997; 3 (7/8): 664-86.
  • Reid DM, New SA - Nutritional influences on bone mass - Proc Nutr Soc 1997 Nov; 56 (3): 977-87.
  • Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP - Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women - Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Apr; 69 (4 ): 727-36.
  • Prince R, Devine A, Dick I, Criddle A, Kerr D, Kent N, Price R, Randell A - The effects of calcium supplementation (milk powder or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women - J Bone Miner Res 1995 Jul ; 10 (7): 1068-75.
  • Zemel MB - Calcium utilization: Effect of varying level and source of dietary protein - Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48: 880-883.
  • Linkswiler HM, Zemel MB, Hegsted M, Schuette S - Protein-induced hypercalciuria - Fed Proc 1981; 40: 2429-2433.

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