Polyps - Types of Polyps, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Care
Definition of polyp
In pathology, the term "polyp" defines an anomalous tissue spongescence, soft and spongy, which grows along a mucous membrane and protrudes into a body cavity. In the figure we see the example of intestinal polyps, which develop in the mucosa of the colon.
- Shape and surface: the polyps can have a regular shape and a smooth surface, or show an evident irregularity, with a rough and knurled surface.
- Anchoring method: the polyps can be sessile or pedunculated. In the first case, the polyps are anchored to the mucosa with all their base; otherwise, the pedunculated polyps adhere to the mucosa by means of a peduncle, a sort of cup-shaped protuberance.
- Growth: polyps can grow singly or in pairs, or form clusters made up of many small polyps. In the latter case, the octopus takes on a particular shape, comparable to a bunch of grapes or a cauliflower. When more polyps grow in the same anatomical site, one speaks more correctly about polyposis .
- Size: there are very small polyps - with dimensions of just a few millimeters - and giant polyps, able to exceed 2 centimeters in diameter. Large polyps, as well as agglomerates consisting of numerous tiny polyps, tend to cause problems and more pronounced discomforts than smaller ones.
- Cytological composition (benign and malignant polyps). We speak of benign polyps (adenomas or papillomas) when the cells within them proliferate, giving rise to a more or less expansive neoformation, without causing any damage to the surrounding tissues. Otherwise, the malignant polyp (adenocarcinoma or carcinoma) is able to invade adjacent tissues and organs, triggering a series of catastrophic chain cellular events.
- Localization: polyps can originate in several anatomical sites. The target of the polyps is constituted by the mucous membranes and, according to the cavity from which they protrude, they are distinguished:
- Polyps of the nose and ear
- Uterine polyps: endometrial and cervical
- Intestinal polyps: small (rare), colon and rectum
- Bladder polyps
- Stomach polyps
| No certain cause.|
estrogenic changes. Women during the premenopause are the most affected
|Menstrual changes: |
Post-operative chemotherapy treatment to prevent recurrences (for malignant forms)
Post-operative chemo / radiotherapy treatment to prevent recurrences (for malignant forms)
|POLYPS OF THE STOMACH|