Medications to treat kidney failure

Definition

Kidney failure means the inability of the excretory organ (kidney) to perform its functions properly. When kidney deficiency occurs gradually and slowly, we speak of chronic renal failure, whereas when it develops suddenly it is an acute form

Causes

The causes of renal failure are different in the two forms:

  1. Chronic renal failure: prolonged intake of alcohol, drugs and drugs, kidney stones, diabetes and hypertension in advanced and bad form, prostatic hypertrophy, tumors.
  2. Acute renal failure: alcohol abuse, drugs, drugs, inflammation (pyelonephritis, glomerulus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease)

Symptoms

The severity of the symptom depends on the form in which renal failure occurs: anemia, asthenia, swollen ankles, muscle cramps, difficulty urinating (dysuria), bone metabolism disorders, low back pain, emesis, swollen legs, hypertension, nausea, oliguria, proteinuria, water retention, suspension of urine emission, electrolyte imbalance, dark / bloody urine.

Complications: hyperparathyroidism, hyperphosphatemia, hypo / hypercalcemia

Diet and Nutrition

Information on kidney failure - drugs for the treatment of renal failure is not intended to replace the direct relationship between health professional and patient. Always consult your doctor and / or specialist before taking kidney failure - drugs for the treatment of kidney failure.

drugs

It should be pointed out that in the case of renal insufficiency, the taking of drugs can cause unpleasant side effects in various circumstances: when the secretion of the substance taken is reduced (accumulation of toxic metabolites); when the patient becomes sensitive to the drug; when the effectiveness of the active ingredient is reduced. In order to avoid these unpleasant incidents, the patient must undergo a thorough medical examination, where the specialist will correct the dosage of the given drug if necessary or completely change therapy.

The following are the classes of drugs most used in therapy against renal failure, and some examples of pharmacological specialties; it is up to the doctor to choose the most suitable active ingredient and posology for the patient, based on the severity of the disease, the health status of the patient and his response to treatment:

ERYTHROPOIETIN : Epoetin (eg EPREX ALFA, NEO-RECORMON, Binocrit, Abseamed) is a recombinant human erythropoietin used in the treatment of erythropoietin deficiency anemia in the context of chronic renal failure. It is recommended to administer 50-100 units / kg by subcutaneous route; alternatively, administer the drug intravenously three times a week.

VITAMIN D : administration of vitamin D and derivatives is recommended in case of severe renal insufficiency requiring a supplement of this vitamin.

  1. Alfacalcidol (eg. Diseon, Diserinal, Geniad, Dediol): to be taken by mouth or by intravenous injection (in 30 seconds), administered initially 1 µg per day (the dosage can be modified by the doctor to avoid episodes of hypercalcaemia); subsequently, continue therapy by administering 0.25-1 µg per day, depending on the patient and the severity of the disease.
  2. Calcitriol (eg Calcitriolo Eg, Calcitriolo Hsp, Rocaltrol): for patients suffering from hypocalcemia associated with chronic renal failure on dialysis, it is recommended to take 0.5 µg (about 10 ng / kg) 3 times a week at the beginning of therapy; when necessary, increase the dose by 0.25-0.5 µg at 2-4 week intervals.

Loop diuretics

  1. FUROSEMIDE (eg. Furosemide Age, LASIX, Spirofur) it is possible to take the drug orally or parenterally. Orally, it is recommended to start the treatment at a dosage of 20-80 mg per day, and to continue the treatment by increasing the dose by 20-40 mg every 6-8 hours, until the desired effect is achieved. The maximum daily dose should not exceed 600 mg. Continuous intravenously, administer 0.1 mg / kg as an initial dose, followed by 0.1 mg / kg or double dose every 2 hours, up to a maximum of 0.4 mg / kg per hour. Consult your doctor.
  2. Torsemide (eg Demadex): take 10 mg of the substance once a day, orally or intravenously. The duration of therapy should be determined by the doctor.
  3. HEPACRINIC ACID (eg REOMAX, Ac etacr): the drug is particularly indicated in cases of chronic renal failure associated with hypertension. It is recommended to take one tablet (50 mg) per day, in the morning after breakfast. Parenteral administration is also possible.

Chelating agents : indicated in cases of chronic renal failure associated with hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients.

  1. SEVELAMER (eg RENAGEL, tablets of 400-800 mg, RENVELA, tablets of 800 mg or powder of 1.6 g and 2.4 g, for oral suspension). In general, a dose of 2.4-4.8 g per day is initially taken, in three doses during meals. The dosage will be subsequently modified by the doctor based on the plasma phosphate concentration.
  2. Aluminum hydroxide: it is an antacid containing aluminum, used in therapy as a chelating agent of phosphorus for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in the context of chronic renal failure. The recommended dose ranges from 500 to 1000 mg / day, taken orally in 4 divided doses. Again, the dosage should be changed during therapy based on serum phosphate levels.

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