anatomy

Anatomy and exercises for thighs and buttocks

Edited by Andrea De Lucchi Similarly to the definition of shoulder girdle, we could define the pelvic girdle as that functional complex made up of bones, joints and muscles, which allows reciprocal mobility between the pelvis and the root of attack of the lower limbs, but also between the pelvis and the vertebral column

Anatomy and exercises for arms and legs

Edited by Andrea De Lucchi Concluding the analysis of the shoulder girdle it is necessary to include other muscle districts which at first sight may have little to do with this functional complex. These are muscles that perform their main function at the level of the elbow joint, thus belonging to the upper limbs but which, being biarticular, also affect the scapulo-humeral articulation

Long thumb abductor

The long abductor muscle of the thumb is the most lateral of the deep posterior muscles of the forearm. It originates on the dorsal face of the ulna, distal to the crest of the supinator muscle, on the interosseous membrane and on the dorsal face of the radium. With his insertion tendon he crosses the 1st dorsal carpal ligament duct and inserts himself at the base of the first metacarpal bone

Short lead

The short adductor muscle is a triangular-shaped muscle originating from the medial portion of the anterior aspect of the superior branch of the pubis and from the superior portion of the anterior aspect of the ischiopubic branch. It is inserted on the upper third of the medial lip of the rough line of the femur

Clavicle origins and muscle and ligament insertions

Click on the name of the muscles to view their anatomical features COSTOCLAVICOLAR BONDAGE extends between the coracoid process and the clavicle and is divided into an antero-medial part (trapezoid leg) and posterolateral (leg conoid) TRAPEZOID BOND: originates from the superomedial margin of the coracoid process and moves towards the trapezoid line of the clavicle CONOID BONDAGE: originates from the base of the coracoid process and ends, radiating in a fan pattern, on the cone-shaped tubercle of the clavicle SEE ALSO: fracture of the clavicle Upper limb Lower limb Trunk Abdomen Articles

Hip and femur: posterior view, origins and muscular insertions

Click on the name of the muscles to view their anatomical features See also: Hip and hip osteoarthritis: muscle strengthening after surgery Upper limb Lower limb Trunk Abdomen Articles

Long connector

The long adductor muscle is a flat muscle with a triangular shape. It originates from the anterior aspect of the superior branch of the pubis and is inserted on the middle third of the rough line of the femur. Superficially it is covered by the femoral fascia and with its action it externally adducts and rotates (extraloting) the thigh, it can also intervene in the thigh flexion on the pelvis

Anatomy and physiology of the colon

Large intestine Colitis Irritable bowel syndrome Colon cancer Colonoscopy Virtual colonoscopy Anatomy The colon is a hollow organ (or bowel), placed in the abdominal area, about a meter and a half long, which begins at the level of the ileo-cecal valve, terminal part of the small intestine, and ends with the rectum and the anal canal

anconeus

The anconeus muscle originates from the posterior surface of the epicondyle of the humerus and is inserted on the proximal fourth of the dorsal face of the ulna. With its action it collaborates with the triceps muscle in the extension of the forearm; abducts and stabilizes the ulna. It is innervated by the radial nerve C7, C8

Brachial biceps

The BRACHIAL BICIPITE is a biarticular muscle that is part of the anterior muscles of the arm. It consists of two heads: one long and one short. The long head, situated laterally, originates from the supra-glenoid tubercle of the scapula and from the glenoid labrum (it therefore has an intracapsular origin) through a long cylindrical-shaped tendon

Brachial

The brachialis muscle is placed deeper than the brachial biceps. It originates from the distal half of the anterior aspect of the humerus (below the deltoid insertion) and from the intermuscular septa. It ends on the ulnar tuberosity and on the joint capsule. In contrast to the biceps brachialis muscle it is a monoarticular muscle which, with its action, flexes the forearm

Hamstring

The biceps femoris muscle occupies the posterior and lateral region of the thigh and is composed of two heads, one long and one short. The long head originates from the upper part of the ischial tuberosity with a common head to the semitendinosus muscle. The short head originates from the middle third of the lateral lip of the femur line and from the lateral intermuscular septum

Brachioradials

The brachioradialis muscle is a superficial muscle that occupies the lateral region of the forearm and is clearly visible in normal-weight people. It originates on the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus (under the groove of the radial nerve) and on the lateral intermuscular septum. It fits into the radial face of the radium styloid process

coracobrachialis

The coraco-brachialis muscle originates, as the name suggests, from the apex of the coracoid process of the scapula, an origin that it shares with the short head of the biceps muscle. It is inserted on the middle third of the anteromedial face of the humerus. It is found medially and deeply at the short head of the triceps

Short extender of the thumb

The extensor short muscle of the thumb is a deep muscle of the posterior region of the forearm. Located in a medial position with respect to the long abductor muscle of the thumb, it originates from the ulna, the interosseous membrane and the dorsal face of the radium. With his insertion tendon he crosses the 1st dorsal carpal ligament duct and inserts himself into the dorsal base of the proximal phalanx (1a) of the thumb

Body organization

Anatomical axes: they can be compared to skewers that cross the body. These imaginary lines are used to trace the axis on which the rotational movements take place. A bit like what happens to the hinges of a door. The door moves in a plane around an axis. The plane (the door) is determined by the orientation of the pin in the hinge (axis)

Deltoid

The deltoid muscle externally covers the lateral part of the shoulder joint. It is composed of three parts: a clavicular part, an acromial part and a spinal part. The clavicular (anterior) part originates from the lateral third of the anterior margin of the clavicle; the acromial (medial) originates from the apex and from the lateral margin of the acromion; the spinal one (posterior) originates from the lower lip of the spine of the scapula All three parts are inserted at the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus The deltoid muscle is the most powerful abductor of the humerus up to 90 °, especially

Extender just for the little finger

The extensor muscle of the little finger is a superficial muscle of the posterior region of the forearm, placed medially in relation to the common extensor muscle of the fingers. It originates along with this muscle from the posterior aspect of the humeral epicondyle and from the antibrachial fascia

Common finger extender

The common extensor muscle of the fingers is located in the posterolateral part of the forearm. It is a superficial muscle that originates from the posterior aspect of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, from the lateral collateral ligament, from the annular radial ligament and from the antibrachial fascia

Lower posterior tooth

The posterior inferior dentate muscle originates from the posterior leaflet of the lumbodorsal fascia (at the level of the spinous processes of T11-T12 and L1-L3). It is placed deeper than the large dorsal muscle, it covers the iliocostal, the very long of the back, the ribs and the intercostal muscles

Diaphragm: the muscle of serenity

By Dott.Luca Franzon Engineering teaches us that a building, to stay together and grow upwards, needs vertical structures, but at the same time, to keep it together and stabilize it, we need transverse structures. In the human body these structures are represented by diaphragms. You read that right. Not the diaphragm but the diaphragms

Upper posterior tooth

The superior posterior dentate muscle originates from the inferior tract of the nuchal ligament, from the supraspinatus ligament and from the spinous processes of the 7th cervical vertebra and of the first three thoracic vertebrae. It is inserted with 4 tendon digits at the upper margin and the external face of the 2nd-5th coast

Long thumb flexor

The long flexor muscle of the thumb is placed deep in the antero-lateral part of the forearm. It originates from the middle part of the anterior aspect of the radius, from the lateral part of the interosseous membrane, from the epitroclea of ​​the humerus and from the coronoid process of the ulna. Se

Surface flexor of the fingers

The superficial flexor muscle of the fingers is one of the muscles of the anterior superficial layer of the forearm. It originates with two heads. The humeral head originates from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and from the medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint; the ulnar head originates from the medial margin of the coronoid process of the ulna, the radial head from the anterior aspect of the radium (oblique line)

Deep flexor of fingers

The deep flexor muscle of the fingers is located deep in the antero-lateral region of the forearm. It originates from the proximal two thirds of the anterior ulna face, from the antibrachial fascia, from the medial part of the interosseous membrane and from the medial margin of the radium. In the middle of the forearm the belly is divided into 4 bundles which are inserted with the same number of tendons at the bases of the distal phalanges of the 2nd-5th finger

Carpal ulnar extensor

The extensor carpus ulnar muscle is a superficial muscle of the posterior region of the forearm, placed medially in relation to the extensor muscle proper to the little finger. It has a common origin with this muscle and with the common extensor finger muscle (posterior epicondyle of the humerus and antibrachial fascia)

Scapula lift

The levator scapula is a biarticular muscle originating from the transverse processes of the 1st-4th cervical vertebra. Its upper part is covered by the sternomastoid muscle, while the lower part is located deeply with respect to the trapezius. It is inserted on the medial angle and in the upper part of the vertebral margin of the scapula

Ulnar carpus flexor

The ulnar flexor carpus muscle is the innermost of the epitrochlear muscles. It originates with two heads: the humeral head and the ulnar head. The humeral head, the smallest of the two, originates from the anterior aspect of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, from the antibrachial fascia and from the surrounding intermuscular septa

Long thumb extender

The extensor thumb muscle is a deep muscle in the posterior region of the forearm. Located in a medial position with respect to the long abductor muscle of the thumb, it originates from the middle third of the dorsal face of the ulna and from the interosseous membrane. With his insertion tendon he crosses the 3rd dorsal carpal ligament duct and inserts himself at the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb

Great adductor

Placed profoundly in relation to the other adductors, the great adductor is a flat muscle with a triangular shape that occupies the whole height of the rough line of the femur with its base. It originates from the anterior aspect of the ischiopubic branch and from the ischium branch to the ischial tuberosity

Big round

The large round muscle originates from the lower part of the lateral dorsal margin of the scapula. It is inserted on the crest of the small tuberosity of the humerus (also called minor tubercle or bicipital groove). It is related to the large dorsal, with the long head of the triceps, with the subscapularis and with the coracobrachialis muscle

Great buttock

The gluteus maximus muscle is the most superficial and developed of the muscles of the gluteal region (66 cm 2 of section). It is covered by the superficial gluteal fascia and in an upright position it covers the ischial tuberosity (while in the sitting position it leaves it free). In relation to its origin two parts can be distinguished, one superficial and one deep

Great pectoral

The pectoralis major muscle is a superficial thorax muscle that takes on a quadrangular shape when the arm is hanging and a triangular shape when the arm is completely flexed. It can be divided into three parts: clavicular, sternocostal and abdominal The clavicular part originates from the 2/3 medial of the anterior margin of the clavicle

Gastrocnemius or twins

The gastrocnemius muscle is the most superficial of the muscles of the posterior region of the leg. It is formed by two muscular bellies called twins. The medial head originates above the medial epicondyle of the femur, from the popliteal plane, and from the posterior region of the knee joint capsule

Great backbone

The large dorsal is the largest muscle in the human body and covers its lower and lateral sides with its bundles. Its large size allows the muscle to be divided into four different parts: vertebral, iliac, costal and scapular. The vertebral part originates through the posterior leaflet from the lumbodorsal fascia and from the spinous processes of the last 6 thoracic vertebrae; the iliac part originates from the anterior third of the iliac crest; the costal part originates from the 10th to the 12th coast; the scapular part originates from the lower corner of the lateral margin of the scapula

Gracile or Rectum interior

The gracilis muscle is a biarticular, flattened and ribbon-like muscle that occupies the medial portion of the thigh. It is covered by the femoral fascia and is placed deeper than the long and large adductor muscles. It originates near the pubic symphysis at the anterior aspect of the ischiopubic branch

Great rhomboid

The large rhomboid muscle is located in the upper part of the back and is covered by the trapezius muscle; it originates from the spinous processes of the 1st-4th thoracic vertebra and is inserted at the vertebral margin of the scapula below the spine. It has the same function as the small rhomboid muscle: it makes the scapula adhere closely to the chest, elevates it, rotates it internally and gives it

Ischiocrural muscles

Click on the name of the muscles to learn more about their anatomical features Upper limb Lower limb Trunk Abdomen Articles

Large serrated or serrated anterior

The serratus anterior muscle, or large dentate, is located in the lateral wall of the thorax. It originates with 9-10 digits from the outer face of the first 10 ribs. It is inserted from the upper corner to the lower corner of the vertebral margin of the scapula and due to this long it is commonly divided into three parts: an upper part that originates from the first 10 ribs and is inserted at the upper scapular angle; an intermediate part which originates from the 2nd to the 4th ribs and is inserted along the medial margin of the scapula; an inferior one that originates from the 5th to the 9th

Great psoas

The large psoas muscle is divided into a superficial part and a deep part. It is located in front of the square muscle of the loins. The superficial part originates from the lateral faces of the bodies of the last thoracic vertebra (T12) and of the first four lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) and from the intervertebral discs interposed