Bioimpedance analysis and water in the human body

Curated by Gerolamo Cavalli and Gabriele Gualandris It does not seem to interest anyone, or at least a few; we are mainly interested in body fat, to the limit of lean mass ... And water? This lack of interest is curious, given that we are made of water for 65% of our weight. An adult man of about 70Kg should have about 45 liters in his body, it seems strange but it is really so

Adiposity rebound

In children, an anticipation of adiposity rebound is considered an early indicator of the risk of developing obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Adiposity rebound, literally means rebound of adiposity. This term indicates the physiological process of inversion of the adiposity curve, which normally begins around 6 years of life

Is it possible to increase the height?

Stature: what is it and how is it measured? The anthropometric evaluation that measures the distance between the two bodily ends is defined stature ; however, as often happens, the correct term has been supplanted by a generic or incomplete statement, therefore improperly used; in this case the height

Values ​​of BIA (Bioimpedance) - How to interpret them

Bioimpedance or BIA BIA (or rather BIA) is the acronym of the English term Body Impedence Assessment , which in Italian can be translated into bioimpedance geometry . BIA is one of the fastest and most precise techniques for measuring and evaluating body composition (CC); its operation is indirect (like plicometry) and is based on the measurement of IMPEDANCE (Z) offered by the human body to the passage of an alternating electric current at a fixed frequency, by virtue of the fact that the organism's conduction capacity is directly proportional to the amount of water and electrolytes it con

Deepening on Biotypes and Female Training

Interview released by Personal Trainer Alessandro De Vettor for Fitness Report Magazine © √ Why is it important to establish the membership biotype in women's training? The importance derives from the fact that there are substantial anatomical, structural, endocrine and metabolic differences between the various biotypes. T

Bioimpedance (BIA)

By Dr. Davide Marciano With this article it is my intention to talk about a further scientific / practical evaluation tool to test the goodness of the workouts, to then dwell, in a particular way, on the numerous results (healthy benefits, increase in muscle mass, weight loss) obtained by applying the data of a scientifically valid instrumentation

Body composition evaluation and bioimpedance analysis

By Dr. Davide Cacciola Writing a training program is certainly not an easy task if you think about the fact that each person is unique and different from the others. In fact, everyone responds differently to physical exercise because there are many factors that can influence ability and reaction to training stimuli, from the subjective response to training sessions and resilience, to lifestyle

Constitutional biotypes, morphotypes or somathi, practical applications

Biotypology is a branch of medicine that deals with the classification and study of types of body constitution, also examining the relationships between certain morphological and functional characteristics and pathological states. Some constitutional types, in fact, are more prone to certain pathologies than others to biotypes; this aspect, although of medical interest, in the context of personal training is still useful to provide further clues and feedback, useful above all if the person is already suffering from some pathology and / or if he / she has been referred to the gym by his / her ow

Knee height

The height of a subject can be heavily influenced by dysmorphisms of the spine (kyphoscoliosis) and bone diseases such as osteoporosis and rickets. Not surprisingly, from the age of 30, stature tends to decrease with aging, by about: 0.03 cm / year up to 45 years; 0.28 cm / year over 45 years. To eliminate the influence of these factors and obtain a real estimate of the height of the subject, important to proceed with the due anthropometric evaluations, the so-called knee height is used

Ideal weight

In this latest article dedicated to the calculation of the ideal weight, we will refer to various formulas. Before proposing it to you, we will illustrate the main factors that can influence it, in order to provide all the tools for a quick, correct and personalized calculation. The ideal weight corresponds to the body weight reached at the end of a harmonious development


Edited by: Luca Giovanni Bottoni Gone are the times in which we trusted the home balance, an instrument that is based on measuring the global weight of whatever we lean on, not taking into account different aspects of the human body as its composition "fundamental factor for a evaluation of a physical state "


One of the most precise and fast methods for assessing body composition Bio-impedancemetry is a fast and precise method for assessing the body composition (CC) of human beings (1985 Lukaski). Body composition The analysis of body composition is used in various sectors, such as: medicine, anthropology, ergonomics, sports, auxology

Bio-impedance measurement for personal trainers

By Dr. Simone Losi The first step in order to organize a truly personalized training card, and appropriate nutrition, is the objective knowledge of body composition. The plicometry, which is based on the use of a plicometer through which the subject's percentage of fat mass is extrapolated, presents a very significant limit: it assumes that the subject is well hydrated, ie that he has a percentage of total body water of the 60%

BMI and body fat percentage

The following equations allow to calculate the INDICATIVE percentage of body fat starting from the BMI value. IL BMI is obtained by dividing one's weight in kg with the square of the height expressed in meters. Example : If your weight is 80 kg and you are 185 cm tall, your BMI. is: 80 / (1.85 x 1

BMI in children and boys

The Body Mass Index (BMI) - Italianized with the initials IMC (Body Mass Index) - is obtained by dividing the body weight (expressed in kg) by the height (in meters) squared. With a simple calculation, a value is thus obtained, expressed in kg / m2, which correlates very well with the fat mass of the subject; in general, the higher this number corresponds to BMI, the greater the lipid deposits


The BMI is the index most used to obtain a general assessment of one's body weight The Body Mass Index (BMI) or Body Mass Index (BMI) is a parameter widely used to obtain a general assessment of one's body weight. It relates the height to the weight of the subject with a simple mathematical formula

Conversion of grams in various weight units

Converting a certain value from one unit of measurement to another means multiplying it by the appropriate conversion factor. The quantity obviously remains the same, what changes is simply the way of expressing it. If an item costs 10 euros, we can for example buy it with 10 coins of 1 euro or with 1000 coins of a cent

The circumference of the arm

The circumference of the arm is a widely used anthropometric measure, as it provides a quick estimate of the muscle mass of a subject. It is therefore used in sports, to monitor the athlete's degree of hypertrophy, but also in the health sector, to assess the loss or purchase of lean mass (malnutrition, rehabilitation after trauma or surgery, convalescence, etc

Neck circumference

The circumference of the neck is an anthropometric datum used above all to evaluate the distribution of adipose tissue in the upper part of the body. In relation to its value a person is considered: OVERWEIGHT if the circumference of the package is: between 37 and 39.4 cm (man) between 34 and 36.4 cm (woman) OBESA if this value is: ≥ 39.5

Thigh circumference

Thigh circumference : the widest point is below the gluteal fold. Similar to the circumference of the arm, it is used to assess the state of nutrition and the muscle mass of the subject. When compared with the abdominal circumference, it can give an idea of ​​the distribution of body fat (not valid for bodybuilders): WHT (Waist / Tigh Ratio) = waist circumference / thigh circumference Android obesity if WHT> 1.50

Calf circumference

Calf circumference and cardiovascular risk The circumference of the calf is an anthropometric measure used, similarly to the circumference of the arm, to evaluate the muscle mass of the subject. In some studies it has also been used to assess the health status of the subjects examined; for example, in Spain, a study conducted on 22, 000 people over the age of 65 found a significant correlation between reduced calf circumference and high risk of malnutrition; in France, a study conducted on 6, 265 people, always over the age of 65, found an inverse correlation between calf circumference and caro

Chest circumference, chest circumference

See also: chest circumference and physical constitution The thoracic circumference can be measured under normal conditions, with maximum inspiration or maximum expiration. The first data is very useful for assessing the body growth of children and, in adulthood, to obtain an ideal weight estimate: Bernhardt's formula = (body height x chest circumference) / 240) The main limitation of Bernhardt's formula is the failure to take into account age, sex and degree of individual physical activity

Body circumferences

The body circumferences express the transversal dimensions of the various segments of the human body. This is anthropometric data widely used in clinical practice, so that their value, correctly interpreted according to the reference standards, makes it possible to evaluate numerous factors in a practical, economic and with a reasonable reliability, among which we recall: the growth of an individual (head or arm circumference) the distribution of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (together with the folds) and the cardiovascular risk (abdominal circumference, waist / hip ratio or waist / thigh, ne

Wrist circumference: ideal constitution and weight

Body Constitution Being a region almost devoid of fat and muscle tissue, the circumference of the wrist provides useful information on the individual's body structure and morphology. Wrist circumference Morphological type man woman brevilinei > 20 cm > 18 cm normolinei 16 - 20 cm 14 - 18 cm long-limbed <16 cm <14 cm For a more precise evaluation, the following equation is used and compares the data obtained with the references listed in the table

Body composition evaluation

The evaluation of body composition is used in various sectors such as medicine, anthropology, ergonomics, sport and auxology. Great interest is placed in the quantification of body fat in relation to the STATE OF HEALTH and SPORT PERFORMANCE Body composition evaluation is also used for: Identify the patient's health risk associated with excessively high or low levels of FM Identify the patient's health risk associated with excessive accumulation of intra-abdominal fat Monitor changes in body composition that are associated with certain diseases Changes in proportions during growth and a

Body composition and physical activity

In the last century coaches, athletic trainers, anthropologists and sports doctors have been interested in determining the "anthropometric" characteristics that allow maximum performance. Thus for years researchers have examined the physiological profile of high-level athletes, especially Olympians


See also: creatinine as an index of renal function Endogenous creatinine derives from its precursor, creatine, synthesized in the liver and kidney, and 98% localized in skeletal muscles in the form of creatine phosphate (CF or PC). Creatinine is formed by the non-enzymatic hydrolysis of free creatine during dephosphorylation of creatine phosphate

Dexa: dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

Today there are radiographic techniques such as DEXA, CT and MRI that allow to visualize and directly measure the variables of body composition (adipose tissue, bone tissue and muscle tissue). The main limitation of this equipment is that it is not very accessible and very expensive. DEXA: double energy x-ray absorptiometry It is based on the principle of differential attenuation of an X-ray beam, at two energy levels, when passing through tissues

Impedenzometric scale by R.Borgacci

What's this What is the impedance balance? The impedance scale is an electronic instrument designed for: Measure body weight - definable as the force exerted by the mass (quantity of matter) attracted towards the center of the planet thanks to the earth's gravity INDIRECTLY estimate, through the principle of impedance measurement - or impedance measurement - different parameters related to the composition of the same, for example the percentages of lean mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), state of hydration, cell mass, etc

The New BMI

The Old BMI It is now known that the BMI represents a rapid but INDICATIVE indicator for assessing the body weight of a subject in relation to an ideal weight, called "ideal weight". Also known as the Quetelet index, from the name of the Belgian scientist Adolphe Quetelet who developed it as far back as 1830, the BMI stands for Body Mass Index, Italianized in "Body Mass Index" (IMC is synonymous with BMI) The BMI is obtained by dividing the weight (in kilograms) by the height (in meters) to the square of the subject in question

BMI and Reliability

BMI (from Body Mass Index) is a parameter for evaluating body mass. It is not applicable to children and elite athletes, since it is built on the average of the general population. The BMI is able to identify the subject's underweight or normal-weight or overweight condition, with the sole use of a formula that requires two data: the stature expressed in meters and raised squared, and the fasting weight

BMI and Application Utility

BMI and Public Health BMI is generally used as a means of estimating the general body mass, especially of research samples, and can serve indicatively as a means of estimating subjective adiposity. While on the one hand the BMI enjoys excellent ease of use, on the other it has a certain accuracy limit

BMI: Method defects

The medical class and the community of statesmen have highlighted the many limitations of the BMI method. The mathematician Keith Devlin and the association "Center for Consumer Freedom" claim that the margin of error of the BMI is extremely significant, to the point of not even being useful for the evaluation of the state of health

BMI Prime

The Prime is a simple modification of the BMI system, which consists in the ratio between the actual BMI with the upper normality limit referred to the BMI scale (currently defined BMI = 24.9). By definition, BMI Prime is also the ratio between body weight and the upper normality limit of body weight, calculated on the BMI of 24

Body Shape Index

Obesity is considered one of the main causes of premature death throughout the world (especially in the West); in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI), this condition is generally identified with a value equal to or greater than 30 points. In addition to proportionally to BMI, today it is certain that the risk of death tends to increase relative to the shape of the body, in particular to the deposits of abdominal fat

Foot size has increased over the last few decades

According to a report released in June 2014 by the College of Podiatry in London, the feet of the British are becoming larger and larger. From 1970 to 2014, the average size of female feet has in fact passed from 37 to 38.5, while that of male feet has gone from 42 to 44. The study justifies this increase with the general improvement in nutrition, from which an increase in height and weight is derived, to which even the feet have adjusted, becoming larger

The Eskimos and the Brevilines gain more easily

The polar fox ( Alopex lagopus , in the photo) and the Eskimos have something in common. Compared to the desert fox, in fact, the polar fox has small ears, limbs and tail. Similarly, in Eskimos the arms and legs are proportionally shorter than the torso compared to those of black individuals. The reason for these features

Lohman equation for the calculation of body fat percentage

If you want to know everything about plicometry visit the following article: PLICOMETRIA E PLICOMETRI

Improve the proportions of your body

If your goal is to improve the proportions of your body you simply need to get yourself a magic wand and the game will be done! Seriously, building and shaping your body at will is not impossible but very difficult. It is indeed necessary to come to terms with enemy number one, genetics. As usual ..

How to measure height

Standing or height is an anthropometric datum of great importance; not surprisingly, it represents the standard parameter to which many other measures can be related, such as weight, nutrition and body development. Even if it is a routine anthropometric survey, it is very important to respect the correct detection procedure