Generalities and Classification "Connective tissue" is a generic term used to indicate a set of different autoimmune diseases, characterized by inflammation of the connective tissue. To be precise, some of the diseases classified as connectivities also involve tissues other than the connective tissue, such as the muscular or epithelial ones
Key points Behçet's disease (or syndrome) is a rare and complex multi-systemic disorder involving small and large blood vessels. It is a chronic / recurrent vasculitis with multi-organ involvement, potentially fatal. Behçet's disease: causes Unproven hypothesis: the Behçet disease derives from an abnormal autoimmune response, triggered in turn by an infectious agent (not yet identified). R
Definition Ankylosing spondylitis is a greatly debilitating rheumatic disease, the target of which is the spine and the skeletal muscle system in general: spondylitis is a systemic, chronic and autoimmune disease which, in the most serious cases, causes a real fusion of the joints . Ankylosing spondylitis is inserted between the spondyloarthritis and, after rheumatoid arthritis, represents the most frequent and most serious degenerative disease
Generality When we talk about autoimmune thyroiditis we are not referring to a specific pathology, but to a set of autoimmune inflammatory diseases affecting the thyroid gland. As can be easily understood, in this kind of pathology the inflammation that affects the thyroid is mainly due to an abnormal immune response; in particular, the body's natural defenses recognize the thyroid gland as a foreign body which - as such - must be attacked by the same organism
Definition Among the highly debilitating rheumatic diseases, ankylosing spondylitis plays an important role: we are talking about a systemic and autoimmune pathology, with a chronic course, involving the vertebral column and the musculoskeletal system. By degenerating, ankylosing spondylitis can lead to a real fusion of the joints
We talk about autoimmune hepatitis when the liver is affected by an inflammatory process, due to the attack of abnormal immune cells. These cells, instead of defending the body as in healthy subjects, attack and damage the liver. The precise triggering causes remain unknown. Figure: schematization of the attack of auto-antibodies against liver cells
Rheumatoid arthritis (hereinafter simply called "arthritis") is a chronic inflammatory disease. It is a systemic pathology that affects the articular cartilage. The effects can be very serious, disabling and cause irreversible loss of functionality. Likely to multifactorial aetiology, arthritis has a quite important autoimmune component
Celiac disease is often associated with autoimmune diseases, such as dermatitis herpetiformis, autoimmune gastritis, type I diabetes, psoriasis and certain autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Basedow's disease. Although it is certain that people with celiac disease are more prone to suffer from thyroid disease, it is difficult to provide accurate percentages, given the discord among the various epidemiological data that prevent the establishment of the exact relationships between the two diseases
Complications The most severe complication of ulcerative colitis is toxic megacolon. It is a condition in which the colon paralyzes, preventing any passage of gas or material; symptoms include fever, sweat and weakness. If the condition is not treated the colon can relax to the point of breaking, an eventuality, this, rather dangerous for the survival of the individual
What's this Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the large intestine, first involving the rectum and eventually spreading to the whole colon. The typical symptoms are abdominal pain and diarrhea, often mixed with blood and mucous losses. Unlike Crohn's disease (another chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine), ulcerative colitis affects only the most superficial layers of the intestinal lumen, without extending to the underlying ones; furthermore, the manifestations remain localized at the level of the large intestine, while in Crohn's disease othe
What is the LES? The term lupus was historically used for the first time to indicate a lesion to the face that, with a certain imagination, was considered similar to that caused by the bite of a wolf. LES ( Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ) is a systemic inflammatory disease, ie spread to the whole body, which manifests itself with extremely varied clinical pictures
Course and evolution With the use of appropriate therapy, the average survival of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients is currently around 8-10 years from the time of diagnosis. In some cases the course is benign, especially when vital organs are spared, in other cases it is very serious. It is often characterized by exacerbations and remission of symptoms
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 40, but has been described at all ages. The subject most frequently affected is a woman of childbearing age. General symptoms General symptoms include: temperature, asthenia (weakness), weight loss, anorexia, general malaise. Fever can be of different types: more often it is very high, or it can be moderate, or even a low-grade fever
Generality Sjögren's syndrome is an inflammatory disease caused by an anomaly of the immune system. The characteristic symptoms of this autoimmune disease arise at the level of the exocrine glands, in particular those of the eye and the oral cavity; subsequently, other organs and tissues of the organism are also involved.
Diagnosis As seen in the introductory article, the symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome are numerous and affect more organs and tissues. Therefore, the diagnosis of the syndrome is based on several investigations. The main ones are: Ophthalmological tests Blood tests Labial biopsy Scintigraphy and sialography Scialometria OPHTHALMOLOGICAL TESTS In Sjögren's syndrome, they play a leading role.
Generality Autoimmune diseases are particular pathologies that arise following a malfunction of the immune system. In an individual with an autoimmune disease, in fact, the cells and glycoproteins, which make up the immune system, attack the organism which they should instead defend against pathogens and other threats present in the external environment
Generality Myasthenia gravis is a chronic condition characterized by fatigue and weakness of some muscles. It is an autoimmune disease in which the normal transmission of contractile signals, sent from the nerve to the muscle, is compromised. The alteration of these stimuli results in fluctuating levels of weakness and fatigue, which arise quickly and become worse following the use of certain groups of muscles; not surprisingly, the name "myasthenia gravis" means severe ( gravis ) weakness ( asthenia ) muscle ( myo )
Related articles: Cryoglobulinemia Definition Cryoglobulinemia is a pathological condition characterized by the presence in the plasma of cryoglobulins, ie proteins able to form reversible immunocomplexes and to precipitate at low temperatures, and then solubilize again at 37 ° C. This cryoprecipitate can be formed, specifically, by immunoglobulins IgG, IgA or IgM, present in a monoclonal or mixed form, whose production derives from a chronic stimulation of the immune system, as occurs during autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases.
Related articles: Systemic lupus erythematosus Definition Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem inflammatory disease of autoimmune origin; it means that the immune defenses, normally directed against external agents, attack the body triggering a generalized inflammatory process