blood analysis

Lactic acid in the blood

Generality What is it, but above all, why is lactic acid produced by cells? Lactic acid (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) is a weak acid that is produced by cells that extract energy through anaerobic glycolysis, therefore by breaking down glucose in the absence of oxygen. To be precise, anaerobic glycolysis is an essential process that precedes the Krebs cycle and therefore constitutes a fundamental step in cellular respiration; therefore, why sometimes anaerobic glycolysis reaches the production of lactic acid instead of continuing cellular respiration with pyruvate


Key points Definition of hyponatremia Blood sodium concentration <135 mmol / L Classification and causes of hyponatremia Hypertonic hyponatremia: caused by hyperglycemia Isotonic hyponatremia or pseudohyponatremia: caused by an exaggerated increase in lipids and / or plasma proteins Hypotonic hyponatremia: caused by the increase in the hormone ADH → water retention → hyponatremia Hypervolemic hyponatremia: caused by congestive heart failure, liver failure, cirrhosis, kidney disease Euvolemic hyponatremia: caused by inappropriate hypersecretion syndrome of the antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), hy

Hyponatremia: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Therapies

Low sodium in the blood Hyponatremia is a clinical condition in which the concentration of sodium in the blood is lower than normal. In physiological conditions, the concentration of sodium in the blood (natriemia or sodium) is maintained at levels between 135 and 145 mmol / L. We speak of hyponatremia (or hyponatremia) when this value falls below 135 mmol / L


Definition of thrombocytopenia In the medical field, platelet suppression is defined as the occurrence of circulating platelets less than 150, 000 units per mm3 of blood, detected on a blood count carried out at least with two different anticoagulants. The thrombocytopenia therefore outlines a parameter indicative of blood coagulation capacity: in general, the quantity defined as "normal" (or physiological) of platelets in the blood is between 150, 000 and 400, 000 units per mm3

Plateletopenia: causes and therapy

Premise So far we have given the general definition of thrombocytopenia, focusing on the related pathological consequences and on the main causes: in this article we will describe in detail the platelet count gravidic and that induced by pharmacological substances. Finally, we will briefly analyze effective therapies to combat this problem once and for all

Plateletopenia in brief Summary of thrombocytopenia

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on thrombocytopenia Plateletopenia or thrombocytopenia Indicative parameter of blood coagulative capacity: circulating platelets <150, 000 / mm3 Physiological amount of platelets in the blood 150, 000-400, 000 plates / mm3 Probability of spontaneous bleeding Plateletopenia: 50, 000-150, 000 platelets / mm3 → hemorrhage can occur following trauma / surgery Plateletopenia: 20, 000-30, 000 platelets / mm3 → increases the risk of spontaneous bleeding Plateletopenia: <10, 000 platelets / mm3 → ascertained and worrying bleeding Severe thrombocytope

Pulse oximetry - Pulse oximeter

Generality Pulse oximetry is a particular method, indirect and non-invasive, which allows the measurement of oxygen saturation in the patient's blood ; more in detail, this examination allows to determine the oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin present in the arterial blood (often indicated with the abbreviation " SpO2 ")

I.Randi pulse oximeter

Generality The oximeter is a tool that allows you to measure and monitor the degree of oxygen saturation . More in detail, the oximeter allows to evaluate the oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin present in the peripheral arterial blood (defined with the abbreviation " SpO2 ") and, at the same time, it also allows to measure the heart rate of the same patient

Oxygen saturation

Generality Oxygen saturation is a blood index that reflects the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen compared to the total amount of hemoglobin present in the blood. Under normal conditions, during the passage in the lungs, the red blood cells rich in hemoglobin are charged or saturated with oxygen, which will then be transported and transferred to the various tissues of the body

Blood tests

By Dr. Luca Franzon Introduction I think it is right for a fitness professional to be able to evaluate the state of health of the users, and to do so knowing how to read the reports of the blood tests that fitness practitioners often carry with them when they are gym membership. It is clear that the instructor is not a doctor, and that he absolutely must not make a diagnosis or allow himself to advise strange alchemies which would then prove to be unhealthy for those attending the gym


Eosinophils are white blood cells (leukocytes) involved in allergic reactions and in defense against parasitic infestations. In the blood, eosinophils account for only about 1-3% of the leukocyte population; their concentration in those tissues exposed to environmental agents, such as the digestive tract, lungs, genitourinary epithelia and cutaneous connective tissue, is higher

Red blood cells

Normal red blood cell development The development of blood cells is called hematopoiesis , while the specific one of red blood cells or erythrocytes is called erythropic. Bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen are all organs involved in hematopoiesis. Traditionally they stand out: a myeloid tissue, including the bone marrow and the cells that originate from it: red blood cells, platelets and granulocyte-monocytes (white blood cells)


Generality MONOCYTES are a type of white blood cells (or leukocytes) that play more roles in our immune system. Among these tasks stands the phagocytic capacity , whose activation processes are not only implicated in the classical defense against pathogens ( infections ), but also in the regulation of other physiological activities ( coagulation ) and / or pathological ( atherosclerosis )


Generality Neutrophils are the most numerous white blood cells found in circulating blood. These cells protect the body from foreign agents, especially infectious ones, exercising different actions in defense of the organism . These interventions are concatenated and perfectly integrated with those of the monocyte-macrophage system and lymphocytes

Fat coloring

Not everyone knows that, in the analysis of the blood lipid profile, the pigmentation of fats can be very useful in order to separate them and accurately distinguish them (laboratory analysis); often, the method involves freezing or separation with paraffin. The coloring (called Staining ) of fatty acids, triglycerides, lipoproteins and other lipids takes place by means of added molecules called lysochromes ( lysochromes ), or liposoluble dyes

Vertical Automatic Profile - VAP

The VAP test (Vertical Automatic Profile - from the Vertical Auto Profile) is an exam aimed at the dosage of blood lipids, including: cholesterol, lipoproteins and other fats. The name "VAP test" was coined by the private cardio diagnostics company "Atherothec" to identify the relative direct measurement method

The iron glossary

serum iron: indicates the rate of iron present in the blood (in humans from 60 to 160 mcg / dl; in women from 20 to 140 mcg / dl) ferritin: indicates to what amount the iron reserves in the body (15-300 mcg / 100 ml) transferrinemia: indicates the concentration of transferrin in the blood (from 250 to 400 mg / dl); transferrin is responsible for transporting iron from the stores SOLUBLE TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR: membrane glycoprotein used for intracellular transport of iron

Blood Sugar and Weight Loss

Blood glucose is the amount of glucose present in the blood (mg / dl) Blood Sugar Values Fasting blood glucose levels are normally around 60-75 mg / dl, while in the postprandial phase they rise to 130-150 mg / dl. Fasting glucose values (Mg / dl) (Mmol / L) NORMAL 70-99 3.9 - 5.5 Altered (IFG) 100-125 > 5

The Blood Group

See also: Calculate blood type and blood group diet The practice of blood transfusions was already in vogue in the old Europe of the seventeenth century. The first results, however, were disappointing, given that the transfusion was very often a real lethal poison for the patient. For this reason, before the end of the seventeenth century, this practice was banned from France and England

Glycemic peak

Blood glucose levels (blood sugar) are not constant, but follow a curvilinear pattern; phases of growth alternate with others of decrease, depending on the meals and their composition. The minimum values ​​are reached on an empty stomach, for example in the morning before having breakfast, while the glycemic peak is maximum after about an hour - an hour and a half from meals, especially if rich in simple sugars. Th

Low Uric Acid

Generality Low uric acid indicates a reduced concentration of this metabolite in the blood or urine. Through the dosage of this compound it is possible to diagnose, monitor or prevent some diseases that may depend on the scarce capacity of our body to eliminate it correctly. In particular, reduced values ​​of uric acid compared to the norm can be indicative of pathologies of the liver or kidney . Am


Generality Aldolase is an enzyme normally found in many tissues and organs (skeletal muscle, myocardium, liver and brain). In these districts, it participates in the production of energy from glucose . The circulating amount of aldolase can be detected with a blood test. An increase in enzyme values ​​is indicative of some diseases related to skeletal muscle , including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and polymyositis. Th

alpha fetoprotein

Generality Alpha-phetoprotein (AFP ) is a glycoprotein substance with functions similar to those of albumin, synthesized above all during fetal life from the yolk sac and the liver. After birth, alpha-fetoprotein levels begin to fall significantly, reaching - within 12/24 months - the characteristic values ​​of healthy adults (less than 5 ng / mL). Ou

Alanina Amino Transferase, ALT

Generality Alanine amino transferase , more simply known as ALT or SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), is an intracellular enzyme present in many tissues, especially in striated muscles, in the brain and especially in the liver. The alanine amino transferase assay in the blood is therefore a very useful test to evaluate liver function

Ammonemia, Blood Ammonia

Generality Ammonemia is a medical term that indicates the concentration of ammonia in the blood . Ammonia is a nitrogenous product that is formed in the body by the activity of many tissues, but for the most part comes from the metabolism of dietary proteins and from intestinal bacterial fermentations

Pernicious Anemia

What is Perniciosa anemia? Pernicious anemia is an anemic form due to vitamin B12 deficiency . Once quite widespread and difficult to treat, this particular anemia has gained the pernicious adjective due to its ability to cause serious damage and important harmful effects. Today, fortunately, pernicious anemia has become rather rare and easily treated


Types of Anemia Anemias are classified according to alterations in the morphology of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and erythrocyte indices. Whatever the nature of anemia, the reduction in the erythrocyte mass and oxygen carrying capacity, if sufficiently severe, leads to some very specific clinical characteristics

Sickle cell anemia

What is sickle cell anemia? Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease of the blood, so defined by the characteristic sickle shape taken, in particular circumstances, by the sick red blood cells. This peculiarity is in contrast with the typical shape - a biconcave disk, elastic and easily deformable - of mature erythrocytes, which allows them to pass undisturbed in the narrow lumen of the blood capillaries

Iron deficiency anemia

Generality The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined the concept of anemia as a hemoglobin value of less than 14 g / dl in humans, 12 g / dl in women and 11 g / dl in pregnant women. Among the many causes of anemia, iron deficiency is the most common. Not surprisingly, iron deficiency probably represents the most widespread nutritional alteration in the world

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome The "Anti-phospholipid Antibody" Syndrome (APA Syndrome) is a clinical condition associated with the predisposition to arterial and venous thrombosis, and to recurrent spontaneous abortions, characterized by thrombocytopenia and the presence in the circulation of particular antibodies, called antiphospholipids

Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Antibodies - Blood Analysis

Generality Gastric mucosa infection by Helicobacter pylori results in a systemic (IgM, IgG) and local (IgA) immune response . The antibody response to infection is greater the higher the bacterial load; consequently, it is possible to measure specific antibodies, in the patient's blood, to identify any colonization with Helicobacter pylori

Anti-Endomysian antibodies

Generality The plasma dosage of anti-endomysial autoantibodies (EMA) of IgA class represents one of the most reliable serological tests among those used in the diagnosis of celiac disease . These markers are characterized by particularly high specificity, close to 100% (99.8%), flanked by excellent sensitivity (93-96%); they are however burdened by the difficulty of standardizing the method, with possible interpretative errors especially in the presence of a low antibody titre or of poor operator diagnostic experience; moreover, the low availability of antigenic substrates significantly raises

ANCA - Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

Generality Neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are autoantibodies directed against antigens contained in the granulocyte cytoplasm. Their presence is a useful serological marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of some systemic autoimmune diseases; these include primary vasculitis (inflammation of the vessels), such as: Wegener's granulomatosis; Microscopic polyangiitis; Churg-Strauss syndrome

Anti-Gliadin antibodies

Generality The blood dosing of anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) , introduced in clinical practice in the early 1980s, is a valuable aid in screening patients with suspected gluten-sensitive enteropathy ( celiac disease ). In recent years, the importance of anti-gliadin antibodies for the diagnosis of celiac disease has been reduced by the advent of serological markers endowed with greater sensitivity and specificity, such as anti-endomysial autoantibodies (EmA) and anti-transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA )

ANA - Nucleus Antibodies

Generality In laboratory medicine, the abbreviation ANA - an acronym for Anti-nuclear antibody (trad. Anti-nucleus antibodies ) - identifies a vast and heterogeneous population of anomalous antibodies, directed against components of human cells, in particular nuclear (DNA, RNA, ribonucleoproteins, histones, centromere etc

Carcino Embryonic Antigen - CEA

Generality The carcino-embryonic antigen ( CEA ) is a protein that can be produced in large quantities by the cells of many forms of cancer : colorectal, thyroid, lung, breast, liver, pancreas, stomach and ovaries. Consequently, CEA is used as a marker for the initial typing of the neoplastic process and to monitor the occurrence of recurrences


Generality Haptoglobin is a transport glycoprotein, whose function is to irreversibly bind the free hemoglobin molecules circulating in the blood. This allows the formation of an haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex, which is rapidly removed from the bloodstream and directed to the liver for iron recovery


Generality The azotemia measures the amount of total non-protein nitrogen present in the blood. Much of this nitrogen is contained in the molecules of urea, a molecule harmless to our body, which derives from the organic transformation of ammonia. Urea is transformed in the liver and released into the bloodstream, to then be eliminated in the urine, after having been filtered by the kidneys

Beta 2 Microglobulin by G.Bertelli

Generality Beta 2 microglobulin ( B2M ) is a protein whose plasmatic and / or urinary dosage provides useful information on renal function . The determination of the concentration of this parameter is important above all in the distinction of a tubular from glomerular nephropathy. The level of serum beta 2 microglobulin also increases in all conditions of increased cell turnover , such as inflammation, autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases

BNP and pro-BNP - Blood tests

Diagnostic Utility In addition to the values ​​of total cholesterol, LDL and HDL, the blood test reports can report the plasma concentrations of other less known cardiovascular risk markers. Among these, BNP and pro-BNP stand out, particularly useful for assessing the risk of heart failure (heart failure) and in general of left ventricular dysfunctions (such as cardiac ventricular hypertrophy). No