blood health

Sports anemia

Sports anemia is often caused by a lack of iron. This deficiency occurs mainly in endurance athletes and may depend on inadequate intake, poor absorption and increased losses. INCREASE OF GASTROINTESTINAL IRON LOSSES: Gastrointestinal iron losses in the sedentary subject represent about 60% of the losses (excluding menstrual ones) and are mainly represented by small blood losses (about 1 ml / day) and the breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis)

Hemolytic Anemia

Generality The term "haemolytic anemia" is used to indicate a set of blood disorders, characterized by a shortening of the average life of the circulating red blood cells and their premature destruction (extravascular and / or intravascular hemolysis). Furthermore, in the case of hemolytic anemia, the synthesis of new red blood cells by the erythropoietic system is insufficient to compensate for their loss

Thalassemia

Definition of thalassemia Thalassemia is a genetically transmitted blood disease, in which the body synthesizes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. As is known to most, hemoglobin is a protein contained in red blood cells, essential for the transport of oxygen in the blood. In subjects suffering from thalassemia, the mutated form of hemoglobin causes the gradual but inexorable destruction of red blood cells, up to anemia

Thrombus: What is it? of I.Randi

Generality The thrombus is a solid mass consisting of red blood cells, platelets, fibrin and white blood cells, the result of alterations affecting the vasal endothelium, blood flow and / or blood clotting mechanisms. A thrombus can form inside the arterial or venous blood vessels, just as it can form at the heart level

Methemoglobin and methemoglobinemia

Methaemoglobin is a protein similar to hemoglobin, from which it differs due to the different state of iron oxidation. In fact, the iron present in the -EME group of methaemoglobin is oxidized to ferric ion (Fe3 +), while in hemoglobin it is found in the form of ferrous ion (Fe2 +). The passage of iron oxidation from a bivalent state to a trivalent state, makes the methaemoglobin incapable of carrying oxygen in our body

Who is the hematologist?

The hematologist is an internal medical doctor specialized in hematology , that is the branch of internal medicine that studies the blood in all its components and in all its aspects, including the organs that produce it (hematopoietic organs) and the diseases that can affect it. SOME DETAILS MORE ABOUT BLOOD COMPONENTS AND HEMOPOIETIC ORGANS The blood consists of a liquid component, called plasma , and a cellular component

Bone marrow transplant: other complications, in addition to rejection

Some serious blood diseases - including so-called aplastic anemia, leukemias, lymphomas and genetic blood diseases - arise due to damage to the bone marrow , or the soft tissue that produces blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets). When the damage is profound and the response to less invasive treatments is ineffective, the conditions exist to intervene with a particular, very delicate and complex medical procedure called bone marrow transplantation

Bone marrow transplant: some interesting numbers

Bone marrow transplantation , also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation , is the medical procedure by which a damaged bone marrow is replaced with a healthy bone marrow , in order to restore normal blood cell production. It is a delicate, complex treatment that is only performed under certain conditions; among these, we note in particular: an optimal patient's state of health (in spite of the illness that afflicts him) and the impracticability (because ineffective) of any other alternative treatment

Bone marrow transplant: conservation

Some serious blood diseases - including so-called aplastic anemia, leukemias, lymphomas and genetic blood diseases - arise due to damage to the bone marrow , or the soft tissue that produces blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets). When the damage is profound and the response to less invasive treatments is inadequate , the conditions exist to intervene with a particular, very delicate and complex medical procedure called bone marrow transplantation

Bone marrow transplant: where to take hematopoietic stem cells?

Bone marrow transplantation , also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation , is the medical procedure by which a damaged bone marrow is replaced with a healthy bone marrow , in order to restore normal blood cell production. It is a delicate, complex treatment that is only performed under certain conditions; among these, we note in particular: an optimal patient's state of health (in spite of the illness that afflicts him) and the impracticability (because ineffective) of any other alternative treatment

Bone marrow transplant: prognosis

Bone marrow transplantation , also called hematopoietic stem cell transplantation , is the medical-surgical treatment that replaces a bone marrow that is no longer functional with a healthy bone marrow, in order to restore normal blood cell production. Practiced in the event of serious blood diseases (aplastic anemia, lymphomas, leukemias, etc

Bone marrow transplantation: history of the procedure

Bone marrow transplantation , also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation , is the medical procedure by which a damaged bone marrow is replaced with a healthy bone marrow , in order to restore normal blood cell production. It is a very delicate, complex treatment that is performed only under certain conditions; among these, we note: an optimal patient's state of health (in spite of the illness that afflicts him) and the impracticability (because ineffective) of any other alternative treatment

Remedies for Anemia

Anemia is a disorder caused by the reduction of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is directly related to red blood cells, which in turn are an expression of the hematocrit (corpuscular part of the blood). In the case of anemia, the latter may undergo a negative change, confirming the diagnosis. The symptoms of anemia are: asthenia, pallor, tachycardia, fainting, loss of appetite, nausea, dyspnea on exertion, reduction of the ability to concentrate and memory

Sickle cell anemia

Symptoms and Complications Sickle cell anemia, like all anemic forms, is accompanied by pallor, asthenia (tiredness and easy fatigue), cold skin (especially at the extremities) and headache. Although sickle cell anemia is present from birth, most newborns have no particular signs or symptoms before the age of four

Microcytic anemia by G.Bertelli

Generality Microcytic anemia is a hematological disease characterized by the presence of microcytes , that is, red blood cells (erythrocytes) of smaller size than the norm, in peripheral blood. Usually, this situation is substantially superimposed on a pathological reduction of hemoglobin (Hb) below the reference levels

Megaloblastic anemia: What is it? Causes, Exams for Diagnosis and Therapy by G. Bertelli

Generality Megaloblastic anemia is a haematological disease characterized by the presence of megaloblasts in the bone marrow and in peripheral blood. In erythropoiesis (line of differentiation and maturation of the red blood series), megaloblasts are large erythroid precursors . A marked increase ( megaloblastosis ) is indicative of an altered DNA synthesis , classically secondary to a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid

Mediterranean anemia

Generality Mediterranean anemia (or beta-thalassemia ) is an inherited blood disorder . The patients who are affected have a lower amount of red blood cells than the norm , with defects in the synthesis of hemoglobin (Hb, the protein responsible for transporting oxygen). More in detail, Mediterranean anemia is due to the altered production of one or more of the four protein chains (globins) that make up Hb

Anisocytosis: What is it? Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Therapy of G. Bertelli

Generality Anisocytosis means a condition characterized by the presence of red blood cells (or erythrocytes) of various sizes in the peripheral blood. This haematological alteration is frequently associated with some forms of anemia , but may also depend on numerous other pathologies or physiological situations

Embolus - What it is, Why it is Formed, Symptoms, Care

Generality An embolus is any insoluble foreign body circulating in the blood, capable, if it reaches an artery or vein of its own size, of blocking the blood flow in the same way as a stopper. The nature of an embolus can vary enormously; in fact, emboli can be: abnormal blood clots, fat lumps, lumps of amniotic fluid, air bubbles, cholesterol crystals, talc granules, tissue portions, splinters, etc

hemosiderin

Generality Hemosiderin is an iron-depositing protein that can be dosed by taking small tissue samples (biopsy). Hemosiderin alterations assume a predictive value for the diagnosis of various pathologies, including: chronic infections, stable or old heart disease, iron deficiency anemia and liver cirrhosis

Hypocromia - Hypochromic Anemia by G.Bertelli

Generality Hypochromia is a condition in which red blood cells ( erythrocytes ) are paler than the norm. This situation is substantially superimposed on a reduced concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) , a protein on which the red color of these blood cells depends. Overall, the result is a reduced ability of the blood to carry oxygen, which results in the characteristic symptoms of anemia (fatigue, weakness, pallor, dizziness, etc

Microcytosis of G.Bertelli

Generality Microcytosis is a condition characterized by the presence, in peripheral blood, of red blood cells (or erythrocytes) of lesser magnitude than the norm. The presence of microcytes is frequently related to hypochromic anemia . In this case, in addition to the microcytosis, the average concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) contained within the red blood cells is lower than the norm; the result is a reduced ability of the blood to carry oxygen

Microcythemia: What is it? How is it manifested? Causes and Therapy of G.Bertelli

Generality In medical practice, " microcitemia " is a term that is used to indicate two different conditions. In particular, this can be synonymous with: MICROCYTOSIS : hematological picture that can be found with blood tests, in which red blood cells are smaller than the norm. Therefore, the microcitemia assumes a meaning of clinical sign and, as such, it can signal the presence of some diseases and guide the process to formulate the definitive diagnosis of the same; β-THALASSEMIA or MEDITERRANEAN ANEMIA : group of inherited hematologic diseases, in which the synthesis of beta hemogl

plasmapheresis

Plasmapheresis consists in taking blood from a subject, with immediate separation of the liquid component from the corpuscular one (red blood cells, white blood cells and thrombocytes); all thanks to the help of an automated mechanical separator, which divides the two components by centrifugation. During plasmapheresis, therefore, only the liquid part of the blood (plasma) is removed from the donor, while the cellular component is returned by the same sampling needle

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) by G.Bertelli

Generality Thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura ( TTP ) or Moschowitz syndrome is a rare blood disorder. From the clinical point of view, this condition is associated with thrombotic microangiopathy , a disorder characterized by the pathological formation of platelet aggregates ( thrombi ), in the small blood vessels of the whole organism

Blood Transfusions

Generality Transfusions consist of transferring a certain amount of blood from one subject (donor) to another (recipient), by intravenous route. This procedure is adopted in response to specific clinical needs. Transfusions are used, in particular, to replenish lost blood in the case of post-traumatic or surgical bleeding, or in the treatment of certain diseases that cause severe anemia

Aplastic anemia

What is Aplastic Anemia? Aplastic anemia is a bone marrow disease that causes pancytopenia, which is a reduction in all blood cells. In the presence of aplastic anemia there is therefore a simultaneous decrease in the number of red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia)

Blood donation

Generality Blood donation consists in taking a certain volume of blood from a healthy subject, called a donor, and then transferring it to another person, called a recipient, who needs blood or one of its components. Blood donation is a voluntary act, a gesture of little effort but of great solidarity

Side Effects of Leukemia Treatments

Side effects Some treatments for leukemia can cause undesirable effects of varying types and severities depending on the type of therapy, the combination of drugs used and the individual predisposition. The doctor can inform the patient about the most common consequences of the therapy, as well as provide advice for their management

Embolism

Generality An embolism is an interruption of blood flow, due to the presence of a mobile and insoluble foreign body, such as a blood clot, an air bubble, a lump of fat or amniotic fluid, a cholesterol crystal, a talcum powder, etc. The most well-known clinical embolisms are: embolic ischemic stroke, pulmonary embolism and coronary embolism

Hemophilia - Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis It is possible to diagnose hemophilia simply from the symptoms, which the patient complains about. However, confirmation occurs only after a blood test , through which the quantities of coagulation factors present are measured. This makes it possible to establish the type of hemophilia (which is essential for setting the most appropriate therapy) and the degree of severity

Haemophilia

Generality Hemophilia is an inherited genetic disorder that affects the normal coagulation process. The affected patient, therefore, is subject to prolonged bleeding, even after trivial traumas or cuts of the skin. A cause of hemophilia is the deficiency in the blood of an indispensable factor in the coagulation process

Monoclonal Gammopathy

Generality Monoclonal gammopathy is a non-cancerous condition, marked by the accumulation, in the bone marrow and in the blood, of an abnormal protein known as paraprotein (or monoclonal protein or M protein). From causes that are still uncertain and very often asymptomatic, monoclonal gammopathy can develop, in some rare cases, into very serious malignancies, such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma

Chronic myeloid leukemia: diagnosis

What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Chronic myeloid leukemia is a clonal myeloproliferative disease, which results from the neoplastic transformation of the hematopoietic stem cell. The neoplasm is characterized by a prevalent proliferation in a granulocytic sense: in the peripheral blood and in the bone marrow an increased number of mutated granulocytes and all their precursors will be found alongside normal cells

Leukemia - Causes and Symptoms

Generality Leukemia is a term that includes a series of malignant diseases, commonly called "blood cancers"; these are neoplastic hyperproliferations affecting hematopoietic stem cells, bone marrow and the lymphatic system. From the clinical point of view and on the basis of the speed of progression, the leukemia is distinct in acute (severe and sudden manifestation) or chronic (slowly worsens over time)

Leukemia: Cure and Treatment

General information Diagnostic investigations allow us to recognize and assess the extent of the disease. First of all, acute (rapid) and chronic (slow progression) leukemia is distinguished. The greater the degree of immaturity of the cells affected by leukemogenesis, the faster the spread of these and the progression of the disease

Leukemia: general approach to the disease

What is Leukemia? Leukemia is a disease that affects the white blood cell progenitor cells, disturbing the mechanisms that regulate their synthesis and differentiation. Because of this mutation, immature neoplastic clones are formed that reproduce quickly and invasively, replacing normal bone marrow cells in the bone marrow

Leukemia: Diagnosis

What is Leukemia? Leukemia is a blood neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of tumor clones in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and lymphoid organs. The disease, suspected on the basis of symptoms and physical examination, is confirmed through laboratory investigations and instrumental examinations

Chronic myeloid leukemia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms

Generality Premise Blood cells originate in the bone marrow, a liquid tissue that is present throughout the skeleton at birth, while in the adult it is mainly located inside flat bones, such as the sternum, the pelvis, the skull and the ribs. The process of formation and maturation of blood cells is called hematopoiesis

Chronic myeloid leukemia therapy

Generality The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) includes several therapeutic options, able to keep the disease under control for prolonged periods of time. Performing routine analyzes on blood and bone marrow, and frequent evaluation of a hematologist or oncologist specialist, allow to monitor the progression of the neoplasm