disease diagnosis

Osteoarthritis: diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Diagnosis It is based on symptoms and radiological examination (X-rays). The latter can highlight the deformations of the joint, represented by a reduction of the articular rima (the space between the two ends of the joint), the osteophytes, and any bone cysts (geodes). Course and evolution Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease, and for this reason it has a slowly progressive and invalidating course

Hirsutism diagnosis

Generality First of all it should be pointed out that the appearance of a few isolated hairs is not enough, on its own, to diagnose hirsutism. Only the presence of excessive and diffuse hair must elicit the complex sequence of interventions for diagnosis and therapy that hirsutism requires. It is always advisable to distinguish hypertrichosis from hirsutism before beginning the diagnostic procedure

Aphasia: diagnosis

Aphasia: definition Aphasia designates a very complex and heterogeneous symptomatological framework, so much so that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between one form and another. As analyzed in the previous articles, aphasia identifies an alteration of language on the level of both word comprehension and word processing

Agnosia: diagnosis and treatment

Agnosia: introduction Described for the first time by Lissaeur around the end of the nineteenth century, agnosia refers to the inability or difficulty of recognizing objects, people, shapes or stimuli, through one or more sensory channels. In the previous article we analyzed the different types of agnosia, with the related sensory modalities involved; in this discussion we will try to extrapolate the key points of diagnosis, therapies and rehabilitation strategies aimed at treating the disorder or, at least, at reducing symptoms

Apraxia: diagnosis, therapies and prognosis

Apraxia: introduction The observation of apraxic manifestations, the logical interpretation of the disease and the rational explanation of the chain of uncoordinated gestures, often represent enigmatic and obscure elements to decode the intrinsic, hidden meaning of apraxia. In this regard, the diagnosis - based essentially on psychological and motor tests - the therapies aimed at healing the symptoms, and the prognosis, are very problematic, both for the doctor and for the people who live with the apraxis patient, unaware of the disease

Ataxia: diagnosis and therapy

Ataxia in history Since the nineteenth century, ataxia was considered a common symptom of many neurological diseases; only around the middle of the twentieth century it was recognized as a kinetic disorder in its own right. Starting from those years, science and research have evolved, as well as the improvement of diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying the ataxic syndrome and the causes that reside there; unfortunately, there are no targeted therapies capable of completely resolving ataxia, since it is a disorder that irreversibly damages brain neuronal centers

Bronchiolitis: symptoms, diagnosis, therapy

What is bronchiolitis? As noted in the previous article, bronchiolitis is an acute inflammation of the bronchioles, typical of infants and infants. In this conclusive analysis, we focus our attention on the symptoms generated by bronchiolitis, on the diagnostic techniques and on the therapeutic procedure to which patients are subjected

Cryptorchidism: symptoms, diagnosis, therapies

What is cryptorchidism? Cryptorchidism outlines a pathological condition in which one or both testicles are not visible inside the scrotal sac and, in some patients, are not even palpable. As we have analyzed in the disquisition of the previous articles, criptorchidism is not only a congenital disease, but can also exist in a rare, albeit possible, acquired form

Dyskinesia: Diagnosis, Therapy, Prevention

In this conclusive analysis, the chapter on dyskinesias will be completed; in particular, the diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying the alteration of the muscular movements, the resolutive therapies and, finally, the feasible preventive measures will be treated. Diagnosis of dyskinesia Dyskinesias are sometimes extremely complex clinical profiles, such as to require a multidisciplinary approach

Dystonia: causes and diagnosis

Movement disorder As can be guessed from the complexity of kinetic disorder, the search for causal factors attributed to dystonia represents an almost complex task, a rather intricate enigma that must be solved, considering the hypothesis of a possible evolution of the disease and its complication. However, only by digging at the root of the problem will it be possible to identify the risk factors and the causes responsible for the dystonic event: in fact, by identifying the causes a correct and indisputable diagnosis can be drawn up, so as to be able to direct the patient towards the most suit

Premature ejaculation: Diagnosis

Premise Although it represents a much more widespread discomfort than one might believe, premature ejaculation can be overcome: it is a problem that, in the eyes of many men, may appear to be apparently unsolvable, but the remedy is there, therefore it must not frighten too much. In this article the diagnostic strategies useful for identifying this felt sexual discomfort will be studied in depth

Delayed ejaculation: Diagnosis and Therapies

Premise Among the disorders of the male orgasm there is a delayed ejaculation, where the sperm emission is possible (when possible) only after a sexual stimulus of longer duration than the norm. In the previous article we analyzed the different types of delayed ejaculation and the triggering causes; in this concluding discussion we will address the diagnosis and the therapies that can be implemented to anticipate the ejaculatory act

Leptospirosis: diagnosis and therapies

Introduction The diagnosis of leptospirosis, an infectious syndrome caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira, is particularly artificial and complex, mainly due to the marked clinical polymorphism. Strictly speaking, therapies aimed at curing leptospirosis are often a limitation, as the currently available diagnostic tests are not always clear and irrefutable

Leukoplakia: Diagnosis and Therapies

Definition of leukoplakia The leukoplakia is one of the most common white lesions of the oral cavity: it manifests itself in the form of white patches or plaques, abnormally keratinized, not ascribable - neither from the clinical point of view, nor from the histopathological one - to any other causal element if not to smoking [definition WHO]

Lyme disease: diagnosis, treatment, prevention

Borreliosis Lyme disease, also known as borreliosis , is a multi-system condition affecting the skin, joints, internal organs and possibly also the nervous system: it is an infection carried by ticks, infected with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi . In the previous discussion we analyzed the mode of transmission of the infection and the symptoms generated; in this article we will focus on diagnosis, therapies and prevention

Pityriasis Rosea of ​​Gibert: Diagnosis and Therapies

Pityriasis rosea of ​​Gibert The pityriasis rosea of ​​Gibert is a known, rather frequent, benign dermatosis with a generally spontaneous resolution and presumed infectious nature; it is an acute eruptive morbid condition, whose etiology, as already extensively discussed in the previous discussion, is still uncertain. In mos

Blood in sperm: classification, diagnosis, therapies

Premise In the previous discussion, we analyzed the problem of blood in the sperm in terms of incidence and causal elements: in this concluding article the condition will be treated from the diagnostic and therapeutic point of view, after having classified the various types of hematospermia. Classification Based on the clinical characteristics of the blood in the sperm, it is advisable to carry out a precise classification: in this regard, we distinguish the purely bright red blood, from the darker blood (brown or black) inside the seminal fluid

TBE - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Therapies

Introduction Although in nature there are many species of ticks, not all of them are possible vectors of TBE: as we saw in the previous article, the most dangerous tick species for the spread of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus belong to the genus Ixodes (in particular Iodex ricinus) . In this brief discussion the typical symptoms of TBE and diagnosis will be analyzed in detail; unfortunately, there is no completely conclusive therapy, and the cure is essentially symptomatological

Hepatitis C: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Prevention

Risk factors Knowing the risk factors involved in the onset of hepatitis C is extremely important because, if on the one hand it allows effective prevention, on the other it pushes individuals exposed to regular and early medical checks. The latter aspect allows, in many cases, to eradicate the infection before it irreparably compromises liver health

Hepatitis B: Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis Since many subjects do not develop symptoms of clinical relevance, the diagnosis of hepatitis B relies mainly on blood tests. These tests will investigate biological traces of the virus or the presence of specific antibodies against HBV. Complications The complications of hepatitis B can develop in chronic carriers after many years (30-40) from infection

Hepatitis A: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Care

Risk factors Hepatitis A is more common among people who: they work or travel in countries where the disease is widespread, even if they stay in luxury hotels; they have unprotected sexual relations of a proctogenital or ano-lingual nature (especially male homosexuals); they injected drugs or shared the syringe together with others (especially drug addicts); they use non-injectable drugs (the risk is lower than in the previous point, but we must consider that drug addiction is often accompanied by poor personal hygiene standards and that drugs can be hidden in the intestinal tract or contaminat

Osteoporosis: diagnosis, causes and risk factors

By Fabrizio Felici Osteoporosis - Causes and Risk Factors Osteoporosis is an osteopathy characterized by the quantitative reduction of bone mass (the quantity of bone mineral in particular calcium is reduced) per unit of volume and by alterations of the microarchitecture of the bone with consequent increased bone fragility and increased risk of trauma fractures minimum

Rheumatoid arthritis

Evolution and clinical manifestations Although a specific cause of origin is not known, we know very well the alterations of the body tissues associated with rheumatoid arthritis. This disease begins with an inflammation of the synovial membrane (a sort of lining inside the joints) associated with the deposition of proteins (fibrin)

Colon Cancer - Symptoms

Premise Colon cancer (or colon cancer or colorectal cancer ) is, in 95-97% of the cases, an adenocarcinoma , a malignant tumor that originates from the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. This article is mainly devoted to the description of the typical symptoms of adenocarcinoma of the colon , the most common type of colon cancer

Candida: Diagnosis and Therapy

Diagnosis The species most often responsible for candidiasis include Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida kefyr, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis. Usually the diagnosis is made by taking, from the swab, the material from the lesions that the yeasts procure, and then analyzing it with the optical microscope and in culture

Irritable Colon Syndrome - Diagnosis

Premise The so-called irritable bowel syndrome consists of a set of chronic intestinal symptoms, referable to the tract of large intestine called colon. Also known as irritable bowel syndrome , irritable bowel syndrome , spastic colitis or IBS , irritable bowel syndrome affects women more frequently than men (female patients are about twice as many as male patients) and is often associated to disorders of the psychological sphere, such as depression or anxiety

Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosis

Premise Concentrating the attention on pancreatic cancer , the diagnosis of this type of malignant tumor of the exocrine pancreas is quite complex, for at least two reasons: the aforementioned absence of symptoms at the beginning of the disease and the similarity of the symptom picture with several other conditions, between which pancreatitis, gastritis, gallstones, etc

Polygraphic diagnosis of atypical swallowing

By Dr. Andrea Gizdulich and Dr. Francesco Vicenzo Swallowing, aimed at the ingestion of saliva and alimentary bolus, is the most repetitive act that involves, with its oral phase, the stomatognathic apparatus in all its components. In this phase the masticatory muscles must stabilize the jaw, so as to allow the suprahyoid muscles to raise the hyoid bone, which is decisive for the laryngeal-esophageal peristalsis

Systemic Lupus erythematosus diagnosis

Generality Laboratory tests are generally characterized by a moderate anemia, a leukopenia (decrease in white blood cells) and thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets). All this due to the presence of reactive antibodies against these three blood cell lines. The other antibodies that can be found in the circulation, and that are typical of the disease, are: Anti-nucleus antibodies or ANA : they are turned against the cell nucleus; their presence, although very indicative of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus , is however not absolutely specific as this finding may also be present in other diseases (rhe

Melanoma - Diagnosis and Care

Diagnosis For a correct clinical diagnosis the dermatologist must visit the entire skin and mucous membranes visible with the patient completely stripped and with adequate lighting. It is necessary, in particular, to carefully observe also locations that the patient is unlikely to observe alone, such as the spaces between the fingers (interdigital), the soles of the feet, the hair, the nails, the auricular regions, the perianal region and the genitals

Transglutaminase and Celiac Disease - Anti-transglutaminase antibodies

Generality Anti-transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies are IgA / IgG type immunoglobulins found in people with celiac disease. Together with anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA), the tTg represent the most specific serological marker for the diagnosis of celiac disease. Anti-transglutaminase antibodies are directed against a tissue protein (called transglutaminase antigen), located in the mucosa of the small intestine; this protein interacts with gliadin, playing a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease


Generality The anamnesis , or clinical history , is a very important piece in the path of identification of a not yet specified morbid condition. Basically, the anamnesis consists in the collection and careful analysis of the disorders reported by the patient or his family members; all this with the aim of enriching the framework of information necessary for a definitive diagnosis

Auscultation of A.Griguolo

Generality Auscultation is the term that usually refers to the use of the stethoscope, to hear the noises inside the human body. Performed typically on the occasion of each physical examination, auscultation is therefore a medical test. Without risks and contraindications, the auscultation test represents a fundamental step in the preliminary diagnosis of the suffering of organs such as: the heart, the lungs, the large vessels and the intestine; in fact, all these organs emit abnormal sounds when struck by an illness