High cortisol and difficulty losing weight

Message sent by: Andrea Hi Elisabetta, cortisol has been renamed the "stress hormone" because its levels increase a lot due to psycho-physical stress. These stressful stimuli also include the strict diet and prolonged fasting, so it is very likely that the blood levels of cortisol and ACTH are increased simply because of the restrictive diet you underwent

Diet and hypothyroidism

Watch the video X Watch the video on youtube Is there a diet against hypothyroidism? The fundamental role of iodine in promoting correct thyroid function, and the great spread of the disorder, make many people with hypothyroidism wonder if there is an effective diet to treat this condition. For its part, official medicine responds that there is no standard diet against hypothyroidism , first of all due to the different origins of this disorder characterized by an insufficient synthesis of thyroid hormones

Endocrinology in a nutshell

By Dr. Stefano Casali Endocrinology is the discipline that studies the complex system responsible for the transmission of chemical signals and the transfer of information between the different districts of the body, through which it evokes specific biological effects; it also deals with communication and control in a living organism by means of chemical mediators, called "messengers", hormones

Who is the endocrinologist?

Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that studies and treats diseases of the endocrine glands, that is, the organs responsible for the production and introduction into the blood of particular chemical messengers called hormones . Therefore, the endocrinologist is the doctor who deals with the diagnosis and treatment of imbalances and hormonal diseases

Warm hormonal responses

The acclimatization process - thanks to which the human body improves its thermodispersive effectiveness and efficiency over 7-10 days - also includes hormonal adaptations. These endocrine responses are intended to preserve body hydration, volume (circulating blood volume) and blood pressure, which are put to the test by sweating

Hormonal Changes in Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric condition that can induce severe forms of malnutrition / malnutrition. These, more or less serious, negatively affect the entire organism, compromising every type of tissue in the human body. Some examples of tissue damage are: alterations of muscles, hair, teeth, brain, etc

Importance of selenium for thyroid health

Iodine alone is not enough Speaking of the diet-thyroid relationship, the first thought is for iodine, a mineral essential for the functionality of this gland as a structural component of thyroid hormones. Thus, without iodine, the thyroid could not produce its own hormones. Another mineral that is particularly important for the metabolism of thyroid hormones is selenium, mainly known for its antioxidant function

ACTH - Functions and Values ​​in the Blood

Generality ACTH is a polypeptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland (pituitary gland). Its main function is to stimulate the secretion of other hormones, in particular glucocorticoids (including cortisol) by the adrenal glands (adrenal cortex). In turn, glucocorticoids influence the metabolism of sugars and the formation of androgens

Thyroid aspirant

What is it and when is it performed Thyroid aspiration is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure, used when it is necessary to confirm or exclude the malignant nature of a thyroid nodule . Thyroid nodules - which are cellular clusters detectable on palpation and / or through diagnostic techniques such as ultrasonography and gland scintigraphy - are malignant in about 5% of cases


What is Andropause? Andropause is a term coined in recent times to indicate the natural depletion of male reproductive capacities in old age. This neologism recalls female menopause quite clearly, even if the suffix "pause" is badly suited to the decline of man's procreative abilities. The typical hormonal profile of an individual in andropause is established in a way that is anything but drastic, obvious or sudden, while in women menopause is a well-defined process, a mandatory step that begins with the disappearance of the menstrual cycle and is accompanied by a rapid drop in es

Antibodies and Thyroid: Anti-Thyroid Antibodies

Generality Thyroid antibodies are components of the immune system mistakenly directed against the thyroid gland or against some fundamental factors for its normal functionality. This can result in very serious pathological consequences, such as chronic inflammation (thyroiditis), tissue damage or gland dysfunction

Ultrasound of the Thyroid

Thyroid ultrasound is the reference diagnostic test for the morphological study of this gland. How does it work Like all ultrasound techniques, it is based on the different ability of the tissues to reflect the ultrasound emitted by an electric probe; the same device is able to record the intensity of the reflected waves, converting them into electrical signals and reconstructing the anatomical aspect of the thyroid in real time (thanks to a specific computer program)


What is pheochromocytoma Pheochromicitoma is a tumor that develops in the adrenal gland, generally affecting its innermost portion, called medulla, where chromaffin cells are found. It is a rather rare neoplasm, with an estimated incidence between 2 and 8 cases per million inhabitants; pheochromocytoma recognizes a certain family predisposition and is more common among young adults and in middle age groups


See also: Acromegaly Generality Gigantism is the exaggerated statural growth of an individual compared to the reference population. Growth percentages Robert Wadlow, 2 meters and 72 cm, next to his father, shows us the effects of a hyper-secretion of GH during development. André René Roussimoff, 224 cm for 230 kg of weight, famous professional wrestler and actor of the 80s.

Thyroid Goiter

Generality The term goiter, or struma, indicates the increase in volume and weight of the thyroid, a small butterfly-shaped gland located just below the Adam's apple. It manifests itself with a more or less evident and symmetrical bulge of the neck, and can recognize different causes, just as the repercussions of the goiter on the health of the individual are different; in fact, the hormones produced by the thyroid regulate every aspect of the body's metabolism, such as the heart rate, temperature and speed of use of carbohydrates and lipids for energy purposes

Adrenal insufficiency

Generality Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the endocrine activity of the adrenal glands appears to be severely impaired, to the point of being insufficient with respect to the body's needs. The concentration of cortisol is normally regulated by the pituitary and hypothalamus. The latter sends the hormone CRH to the pituitary gland and the gland responds by producing one of its hormones which is ACTH; this hormone stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol; in turn the cortisol concentration participates in the regulation of the ACTH concentration

Radioactive iodine: indications and post-treatment

Indications The indications for treatment with radioactive iodine are essentially represented by hyperthyroidism and thyroid neoplasms [(the therapy allows the elimination of any metastases and residual thyroid tissues after surgery (ablation)]. Patients must however present suitable characteristics, on which the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment depends


Causes Increases in prolactin levels (hyperprolactinemia) may occur: For physiological reasons: pregnancy, puerperium, stress, exercise, sleep, protein-rich meals, breastfeeding, sexual activity; For the use of some drugs : tricyclic antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihypertensives, antiemetics (against nausea and vomiting), antihistamines, cocaine, sometimes birth control pills, metoclopramide-sulpiride, veralipride; Unknown causes ( idiopathic ); Pathological causes: adenoma of the pituitary gland (benign tumor secreting prolactin, also called prolactinoma), non-secreting pituitary adenomas


Generality Hyperparathyroidism is a clinical condition related to excessive parathyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. It therefore involves the parathyroids, four small glands located two by two on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid, similar to lentils and deputed to the synthesis of parathormone (PTH) and to its release in the blood; in turn, this protein hormone has a hypercalcemizing effect, increasing the mobilization of calcium from the bones, stimulating intestinal absorption (mediated by vitamin D) and decreasing urinary excretion

Hyperprolactinemia treatment

Therapy The normalization of plasma prolactin levels must be proposed. In some cases this objective can be easily achieved, for example in hypothyroidism, with an appropriate substitution treatment with thyroid hormones and, in the forms of hyperprolactinemia due to the use of drugs, interrupting their administration

Hyperthyroidism and Thyrotoxicosis: the differences

While hyperthyroidism is a morbid condition due to the enhanced secretory activity of the thyroid, thyrotoxicosis is the clinical picture that is established in response to the exposure of the tissues to the thyroid hormones in excess. Exophthalmos (protruding eyes) may be a symptom of thyrotoxicosis associated with Graves' disease


Watch the video X Watch the video on youtube Definition Hyperthyroidism is a clinical syndrome caused by excessive production of thyroid hormones. The affected person very often develops significant alterations to the metabolism, nervous system and heart. Symptoms To learn more: Hyperthyroidism symptoms Hyper-ionicity causes an increase in oxygen consumption and metabolic heat production

Subclinical hypothyroidism by G.Bertelli

Generality Subclinical hypothyroidism is a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by an increase in serum levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with thyroid hormone values (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) in the norm. In this condition, the typical symptoms of overt hypothyroidism are scarce or absent: the increase in TSH levels is able to maintain thyroid hormone values ​​in the normal range. Th


Generality Hypothyroidism is the morbid state that reflects the inability of the thyroid to synthesize a quantity of hormones adapted to the needs of the entire organism. The causes of hypothyroidism are numerous and very varied in nature. Consequently, doctors have thought of subdividing them into 4 major categories, from which as many forms of hypothyroidism derive: primitive hypothyroidism, secondary hypothyroidism, tertiary hypothyroidism and iatrogenic hypothyroidism

Metanephrine in urine

Generality The dosage of urinary or plasma metanephrines represents a simple and reliable test for pheochromocytoma screening. Metanephrines derive from the metabolism of catecholamines, hormones produced and secreted by the adrenal medullary in order to prepare the body to deal with stressful events

Addison's disease

Generality Addison's disease is a clinical condition caused by primitive adrenocortical hormone deficiency; also known as corticosteroids, these hormones are produced by two small endocrine glands allocated in the fat that overhangs the kidneys and therefore called adrenals. In their outermost portion, called cortical, these glands produce and secrete three types of hormones: androgens, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

Basedow's disease

Generality Basedow's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism worldwide, with an average incidence that - although subject to wide geographical variations - is between 1.5 and 3% of the population. Also known as Graves' disease or widespread toxic goiter (due to the uniform increase in thyroid volume, with no nodular formations), Basedow's disease especially prefers women, with a male / female ratio of 1: 5-10


What is dwarfism Dwarfism is a serious statural defect, for which - at the end of puberty - the height does not reach 130 cm in men and 125 cm in women. When the stature exceeds these values, but remains however below the meter and a half, one speaks of moderate statural hypo-evolutionism. However, given the great variability among the different ethnic groups, the reference structural values ​​remain indicative. Th

Thyroid Nodules

Generality The thyroid nodules are anomalous protuberances of the thyroid gland, having a more often benign than malignant nature. Of extremely variable dimensions, the thyroid nodules can present themselves in different ways: they can be single or multiple protuberances; they can reside on the surface of the thyroid or in the deeper layers of the latter; may be symptomatic or asymptomatic; they can stimulate or depress the hormonal activity of the thyroid; etc

Thyroid scintigraphy

Scintigraphy Bone scintigraphy Thyroid scintigraphy Myocardial scintigraphy Thyroid scintigraphy is a diagnostic imaging technique, which provides valuable information not only on the morphology of this gland, but also and above all on its functionality. Like all scintigraphic techniques, it is based on the administration of radioactive drugs able to be distributed preferentially in the studied body district, in this case in the thyroid

Cushing syndrome

Generality Cushing's syndrome is a complex of signs and symptoms generated by chronic exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids, hormones produced by our body and used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Cushing's syndrome can therefore be sustained by endogenous factors (excessive synthesis of glucocorticoids ) or, more commonly, from exogenous factors (treatment with corticosteroids, such as prednisone, prednislone, betamethasone, etc

Sheehan syndrome by G.Bertelli

Generality Sheehan syndrome is a rare complication that can affect women during or after childbirth . The condition occurs due to an ischemic pituitary necrosis , generally secondary to a loss of a potentially lethal amount of blood ( uterine haemorrhage ) or to a severe lowering of arterial pressure ( hypotension )

Thyroid symptoms

Premise Thyroid symptoms is an improper way to define the symptoms and signs of the pathologies that affect the thyroid gland. The purpose of this article is to list, in a rather schematic way, the main clinical manifestations of the most common thyroid diseases (which, in a country like Italy, affect 20% of the general population)


Generality Thyroglobulin (Tg) is the main constituent of the colloid, contained within the thyroid follicles. More specifically, it is an iodine glycoprotein (containing iodine) produced by thyroid cells (thyrocytes). If necessary, the thyroglobulin is reabsorbed by the colloid, then it is split to give rise to triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)


Generality Thyroiditis is a chronic inflammatory process affecting the thyroid; there are different forms, the most common of which, we will deal with in this article, is Hashimoto's thyroiditis . In this disease the butterfly-shaped gland located in the anterior region of the neck - which is precisely the thyroid - is damaged by abnormal antibodies


Generality Thyrotropin- releasing hormone is a small pepetide produced by the hypothalamus. Also known as TRH (an acronym from the English word " Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone "), once secreted by the hypothalamus, it reaches the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates the release of hormones: thyrotropin (TSH) , prolactin (which ensures the milk supply at the end of pregnancy) and growth hormone (GH)

TSH - What is it? Normal Values ​​and Causes Altered Values

Generality TSH is a hormone that directly affects thyroid activity . With its presence, TSH promotes the absorption of iodine and the release of the hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in the bloodstream. Also called thyrostimulant hormone, thyrotropic hormone or thyrotropin , TSH is produced by the anterior pituitary gland (a small gland located at the base of the skull)

Thyroid tumor

Causes and Classification Thyroid cancer is caused by the abnormal development of some cells of this gland, similar to a butterfly, located at the base of the neck just below the Adam's apple. Thyroid cancer very often manifests itself in a benign form and rather rarely in malignant forms (assuming in this case the name of thyroid cancer)

Endocrinologist: Who is and What does it cure? Skills, Knowledge and Collaborations of A.Griguolo

Generality The endocrinologist is the doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the endocrine system. Deep knowledge of hormonal mechanisms and endocrine glands, the endocrinologist deals with medical conditions, such as, for example, diabetes, thyroid disease, tumors of the endocrine glands, hypogonadism, Addison's disease, the precocious puberty, growth problems, menopausal problems in women and hirsutism

Male Hypogonadism

Generality Male hypogonadism is the condition by which a man's gonads - or testicles - no longer produce physiological amounts of testosterone. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone. The presence of male hypogonadism can depend on a problem inherent in the testicles (in this case we speak of primary male hypogonadism) or from a problem at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, an axis that controls the activity of the testicles (secondary male hypogonadism)