What is spermicide? Spermicides are chemicals that are advertised as "contraceptives" that can immobilize or kill spermatozoa before they enter the uterus. Despite being notoriously unable to guarantee complete protection from unwanted pregnancies, spermicides continue to capture the attention of many young people who are inexperienced from the sexual point of view


Generality The term vulva identifies the set of the external genital organs of the woman. In common parlance, the vulva is often called a vagina , but the two terms CANNOT be considered synonymous. The vagina, in fact, is an internal muscle-membranous channel, which unites the uterus with the vulva. The latter, in addition to the external opening of the vagina, houses the urethra meatus, the clitoris and some small glands, all delimited by two pairs of fleshy folds called vulvar lips

Remedies for Infertility

The term infertility is an adjective used to define a poor effectiveness in conception. This problem may affect only one of the two partners or both. Infertility is NOT synonymous with sterility. The latter is a permanent condition, objectively diagnosed and irreversible (for example due to the absence of the uterus, due to the presence of anti-spermatozoid antibodies, etc

Bartolinite: What is it? Causes, Symptoms, Remedies and Care of G.Bertelli

Generality Bartholiness is the inflammation of Bartolini's glands. This disorder is typical of fertile age . Bartolini's glands are located in the vulvar region , between the labia majora, near the vaginal orifice, where they contribute to the normal lubrication of the vagina, especially during sexual intercourse

Poor menstrual cycle - Scarce Menstruation by G. Bertelli

Generality The low menstrual cycle is a condition characterized by the reduction of menstruation , in terms of quantity and duration . The poor menstrual cycle recognizes various causes: in some cases, the condition is occasional and has no clinical significance; at other times, a flow with these characteristics occurs frequently

Ovulation Disorders and Ovulation Control

Symptoms If ovulatory symptoms do not occur or if you have irregular menstrual cycles, then ovulation may not occur every month. The main symptoms associated with ovulation disorders are: irregularity of the menstrual cycle absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) lengthening of the natural rhythm of the menstrual cycle (oligomenorrhea) excessive and sudden weight loss abnormal or excessive growth of hair on body and face galactorrhea (secretion of milk from the nipples) obesity acne and hirsutism (abnormal or excessive growth of hair on body and face) Oligo-ovulation and Anovulation Ovulation diso

The Vaginal Flora

Generality The vagina, as well as the oral cavity, the skin, the intestine and other parts of the human body, is populated by numerous microorganisms. However, it is not a passive and disadvantageous colonization, but a real system of protection against other potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This very important "ecosystem" is called vaginal bacterial flora

Bartholin's Glands - Functions and Disorders

Generality Bartolini's glands are two small oval structures, belonging to the external female genital apparatus . These glands are located in the posterolateral portion of the vaginal opening, at the level of the lower end of the skin folds (or lips) of the vulva. The function of Bartolini's glands is closely linked to sexual activity: in the excitement phase of the woman, these structures are responsible for the secretion of a clear and viscous liquid , which acts as a lubricant for the vaginal canal

Skene's glands: What are they? Functions and Disorders of G.Bertelli

Generality Skene's glands are two small structures belonging to the external female genital apparatus , located near the urethra meatus. Also called paraurethral glands , their function is mainly related to sexual activity: in the excitement phase of the woman, these structures contribute to the secretion of a clear and viscous liquid which, pouring into the vaginal vestibule, acts as a lubricant

Isthmocele of G.Bertelli

Generality The istmocele is a cicatricial pathology that results after a cesarean section . More precisely, it is a saccular formation , similar to a hernia or a diverticulum, which develops in the wall of the uterus , starting from the surgical wound that results from the incision made to facilitate the birth of a child

Mycoplasma hominis - Mycoplasmas

Mycoplasma hominis is a microorganism that populates the genitourinary tract of some men and women, especially those who are sexually active. Its presence in these places can have both commensal meaning (it does not create any suffering or disturbance) and pathological. In the latter case, Mycoplasma hominis is commonly implicated in the genesis of bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, along with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Brown losses: What are they? Why do they manifest themselves? Symptoms and Solutions by G.Bertelli

Generality Brown leaks are a type of vaginal secretion that can occur for various reasons, at different times in a woman's life (fertile period, pregnancy, ovulation and menopause). In some cases, brown losses do not depend on pathological causes, but on very stressful lifestyles, incorrect eating habits or transient hormonal imbalances

vaginal pH

Maintaining a physiological vaginal pH (acid) is an important protective factor against bacterial infections of the internal genitalia. In childhood and old age, when estrogen levels are low, vaginal pH is around neutrality (6-7). In adolescence and adulthood, however, the environment becomes acidic (around 4

Polyps of the Cervix: What are they? Causes, Characteristics and Symptoms of G.Bertelli

Generality Cervical polyps (or cervical polyps) are benign tumor growths that develop in the lining of the cervix. These lesions appear as small growths, mostly pedunculated. The causes of cervical polyps are not always easily identifiable, but, in most cases, their onset results from a chronic inflammatory state and from hormonal stimuli , such as hyperestroginism typical of the pre-menopausal period


Progesterone is a steroid hormone belonging to the group of progestin hormones. Although a small amount is also produced in humans (Leydig's testicular cells), progesterone is a typical female hormone. In women of fertile age it is secreted by the corpus luteum and the placenta. The corpus luteum is formed following ovulation, when the follicle releases the egg cell contained in it and is replaced by a cluster of cells with a characteristic yellow color

Vaginal itching

See also: anal itching - itching in pregnancy The vaginal itching is a sense of tingling or irritation to the external genitals (vulva) and vagina, which can take pleasant or extremely annoying tones. Since the two terms are often confused, let us briefly recall that the vagina is the musculomembranous duct that connects the uterine cervix with the female external genitalia, which on the whole (large and small lips, urinary meatus, clitoris, vestibule of the vagina) they are called vulva

Asherman syndrome by G.Bertelli

Generality Asherman syndrome is a disease characterized by the formation of adhesions and scar tissue inside the uterus and / or cervix . These thickenings inside the uterine cavity have variable characteristics, ie they can be thin or thick, localized or confluent. In most cases, Asherman's syndrome is the result of endometrial trauma , which prevents the normal regeneration of the basal layer and promotes the fusion of damaged areas

Cervical Swab by G.Bertelli

Generality The cervical swab is a diagnostic test aimed at finding microorganisms responsible for infections of the cervix (or cervix ). The cervical swab consists in removing the flaking cells and secretions from the cervix and the endocervical canal, using a small muffled stick, similar to a cotton swab

Bacterial vaginosis

Edited by Eugenio Ciuccetti, Obstetrician Generality Bacterial vaginosis is probably the most common vaginal infection among women today. It is a condition characterized by the alteration of the normal vaginal ecosystem and its pH; that is, an imbalance concerning the microorganisms that, in physiological conditions, populate and defend the vaginal environment itself (the so-called saprophytic flora)

Gynecological examination: What is it? When and how is it performed? What is it for? by G.Bertelli

Generality The gynecological examination is a specialized examination that allows the evaluation of the health status of the female genital apparatus . This appointment is extremely important for every woman, since puberty, as well as an approach to the prevention of female tumors and other reproductive organs pathologies

Breast examination - Visit to the Breast

Generality The breast examination is a clinical examination of the breast performed by the senologist or gynecologist. This is a painless assessment, carried out without the aid of special instruments at the specialized doctor's office. The breast examination includes two phases: in the first part information is collected that can be useful to formulate the final diagnosis ( medical history ); the second phase, instead, consists in the inspection and palpation of the breasts in different postures

Vaginal discharge

Within certain limits, that of vaginal discharge is a physiological phenomenon, especially in certain periods of life. Let it be clear, first of all, that the vaginal mucosa is itself devoid of glands, which is why those secretions which we commonly call "leaks" are actually represented above all by the secretion of the uterine cervix

Ovulatory dysfunction - Causes and Symptoms

Definition There is talk of ovulatory dysfunction in the event that ovulation is irregular or absent. This alteration can be suspected in the presence of irregular menstrual cycles or those that are not preceded by symptoms such as breast tenderness, abdominal swelling or changes in mood. In addition to the premenopausal state, one of the most common causes of ovulatory dysfunction is polycystic ovary syndrome