health of the nervous system


What is dysesthesia Dysestesia is a noun that derives from the Greek words "dis", which means "abnormal" and "aesthesis", meaning "sensation"; the meaning of dysesthesia is "abnormal sensation". It is an anomaly of the tactile sense, frequently characterized by marked unpleasantness


What is cleft? Schisi is synonymous with SPACE ; with cleft it is usual to indicate a type of tissue cracking genetically determined or otherwise influenced by familiarity; during embryonic development, those affected by cleft do not reach the continuity of one or more areas or segments that appear therefore interrupted and / or incomplete due to the lack of fusion of the two tissue heads

Aphasia in brief: Summary on aphasia

Summary on aphasia Scroll down the page to read the summary table on aphasia. Aphasia Aphasia: language deficiency, usually due to cerebral pathologies. Aphasia identifies an alteration in the ability to understand and use both words and verbal expressions Aphasia: incidence 150, 000 patients with aphasia in Italy Affects 40% of stroke patients in the left hemisphere 20, 000 new cases every year Aphasia: etymologies and meaning of the term Literal translation : aphasia derives from the Greek ἀφασία, meaning mutism Meaning : an aphasic patient is not always "one who does not speak", bu

Aphasia: therapy

Aphasia: treatable disease? Fortunately, aphasia is a curable disease for many patients: however, each individual responds in a subjective way to therapies, since the language disorder, as we have seen in the previous articles, can occur through many facets. Consequently, it is not possible to accurately estimate the timing of healing from aphasia: the duration of the therapeutic cycle depends on the subject, the age of the patient, the cause that caused the aphasia and the chosen therapeutic option

Agnosia in brief: Summary on agnosia

Agnosia: summary Scroll down the page to read the agnosia summary table. Agnosia Sensory perception of a sensory, tactile, visual and / or acoustic nature: the subject is unable to recognize and identify a given object, perfume, form, person or entity Agnosia: etymology of the term The term agnosia derives from the Greek a-gnosis , which literally means not knowing Agnosia: causes Agnosia is directly related to brain injury Agnosia appercettiva Impairment of the patient's perceptive functionality: Transformational agnosia Agnosia by form Integrative agnosia Associative Agnosia The patient i


Aphasia: definition The term "aphasia" includes a heterogeneous and multiform group of language deficits, usually consequent to cerebral pathologies: in general, aphasia identifies an alteration of the ability to understand and use both words and verbal expressions. In other words, aphasic patients are not able to transform their thoughts into words

Aphasia: classification

Aphasia: definition Aphasia is the title of the chapter concerning language disorders, basically related to the articulation and understanding of words: it is an acquired disorder, that is to say consequent to a trauma related to the cerebral hemisphere that coordinates the language. In the introductory article we have analyzed the general picture of aphasia: in this discussion the various forms of aphasia will be examined


Definition of Agnosia In the absence of memory deficits and sensory systems lesions, agnosia is a tactile, visual and / or acoustic perception of a sensory discriminatory nature. In simple words, we speak of agnosia when the subject is unable to recognize and identify a given object, perfume, form, person or entity, despite maintaining its perceptive capacity unchanged

Dissociative Amnesia

Generality Dissociative amnesia is a disorder characterized by a loss of retrospective memory , linked to disturbing events from a physical and emotional point of view. This manifestation represents a defense mechanism implemented in an unconscious way to protect one's mental balance. Among the triggering events can be traumatic or highly stressful experiences directly suffered or witnessed (sexual abuse, murders, natural disasters, abandonment, financial problems, etc


What is apraxia? In the absence of elementary neurological lesions of motor or sensory nature, we speak of apraxia when the subject shows an evident difficulty or inability to perform voluntary movements. More precisely, apraxia is a neuropsychological disorder directly related to movement deficits, both in terms of planning and motor programming: in other words, the apraxis patient is not able to perform precise gestures ( meaningful movements ) and / or meaningless voluntary movements

Apraxia: classification

Definition of apraxia Apraxia, the acquired disorder of the gesture par excellence, represents the impossibility or difficulty of coordinating gestures, despite the patient's motor capacity remains unharmed. It is a neuropsychological disorder, generally resulting in brain traumas: strictly speaking, it is understandable how apraxia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder

Apraxia in a nutshell

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on the apraxia. Apraxia: definition Clear difficulty or inability to perform voluntary movements: apraxia is a neuropsychological disorder directly related to movement deficits, both in terms of planning and motor programming Apraxia: analysis of the term and meaning Aprassia derives from the Greek a-praxìa : prefix a - indicates a denial suffix –praxìa means to do → literally non-doing, impossibility to do Aphasia and general traits Most apraxis patients are not aware of their deficits, they are normo-intelligent, they are not disabled, and both w


What is ataxia? Consistent disorder in the lack of muscular coordination, which makes it difficult to perform voluntary movements : this is the definition of ataxia specified by the AISA, the Italian Association for the fight against Ataxic Syndromes. Ataxia, inserted - along with dystonia - among dyskinesias, is a disorder involving the nervous system, which is characterized by the gradual, though inevitable, loss of motor-muscle coordination; in other words, ataxia causes the progressive inability of movement, often associated with muscle pain

Cerebellar ataxia

Cerebellar ataxia: definition Cerebellar ataxias represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that identify precise cerebellar syndromes: the cerebellar forms, like all ataxias, frame neurodegenerative disorders, responsible not only for the progressive motor uncoordination of the lower and upper limbs, but also for involuntary ocular wave movements (oculomotor defects) and difficulty in articulating the word (dysarthria)

Friedreich's ataxia

Friedreich's ataxia: definition Friedreich's ataxia owes its name to Nikolaus Friedreich, who in 1863 described the symptoms of this kinetic disorder; among the dyskinesias, Friedreich's ataxia certainly represents the most famous degenerative movement disorder, a genetic anomaly with an autosomal-recessive transmission responsible for the progressive and inevitable damage to the central and peripheral nervous system

Ataxia: classification

Ataxia: definition From the Greek ataxiā (disorder, uncoordination), ataxia is the cardinal symptom of ataxic syndromes, characterized by the progressive and inevitable loss of muscular control, associated with a difficulty in performing voluntary movements: the ataxia expresses the final product of a series of genetic disorders or secondary lesions affecting the central nervous system.

Charcot-Marie Tooth Ataxia

Charcot-Marie Tooth Ataxia: definition Charcot-Marie Tooth's ataxia is one of the family neurological hereditary diseases: first the syndrome affects the nerves, then, by induction, it also damages the muscles and the other sites of the body. The above ataxic syndrome owes its name to Jean-Martin Charcot, Pierre Marie and Howard Henry Tooth, the three neurologists who first described this ataxia in detail - although they were not the first researchers to have discovered it - around the end of the nineteenth century

Ataxia: symptoms and causes

Ataxia: introduction From the literal translation, the term "ataxia" indicates a disorder, as well as a disordered condition, lacking in order and muscular coordination. The absence of motor control is a symptom of many complex pathologies: it is sufficient to think that approximately 300 pathological forms with genetic transmission have been identified, including some form of ataxia

Ataxia in brief: Summary on ataxia

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on ataxia. Ataxia Consistent disorder in lack of muscle coordination, which makes it difficult to perform voluntary movements: ataxia causes progressive inability to move, often associated with muscle pain General characteristics of ataxia Movements of reduced or excessive width Unsteady, uncertain and shaky gait Simultaneous spasms and contraction of antagonistic muscle bundles Injury in the cerebellum, spinal cord and peripheral nerves Degeneration of ataxia Onset: few ataxic manifestations that progressively degenerate Evolution: pronounced atax

Brachialgia (cervical radiculopathy)

Brachialgia: key points The term "brachialgia" defines a painful condition at the level of the arm, due to crushing or irritation of a spinal nerve in the neck. Causes Brachialgia is a characteristic or secondary symptom of numerous disorders and diseases, such as: degenerative changes in the intervertebral joints, cervical arthrosis, herniated discs, osteophytes, progressive disc degeneration, spondylosis, spinal stenosis and tumors of the spine

Tension Headache

Generality Tension headache is the most common form of headache and, relatively, the least painful. The disorder mainly depends on the involuntary and continuous contraction of the neck and shoulder muscles , associated with fatigue and tension. The tension headache is more common in the female sex and it mainly affects people who spend a lot of time sitting in incorrect positions or accumulate stress


Definition of convulsion Often unpredictable, the convulsions consist in a series of involuntary, abrupt and uncontrolled movements, of the voluntary musculature, responsible for agitation and spasms of the body. During a seizure, the victim's muscles contract and relax repeatedly, for a variable amount of time depending on the severity of the condition

Convulsions: classification, diagnosis and therapy

What are convulsions The convulsions manifest themselves with involuntary, abrupt and totally uncontrolled contractions of the voluntary skeletal muscles, and constitute the motor variant of a paroxysmal neuronal hypersynchronization . As analyzed in the introductory article, convulsions are heavily influenced by systemic / metabolic factors (hyperpyrexia, hypoglycemia, malignant hypertension, hypomagnesemia, hypoxia, drug poisoning etc

Febrile convulsions

Definition In the absence of infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system, febrile convulsions outline convulsive episodes, critical or otherwise, typical of children aged between 6 months and 6 years. Seizures in the course of febrile pathologies seem to be one of the most common neurological disorders of the pediatric age

Febrile convulsions: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Therapy

Feverish convulsion: definition More than a single clinical entity, febrile convulsions constitute a syndromic variant that groups together different types of simple and / or epileptic seizures. Despite the odds that a child affected by a febrile seizure develops epilepsy is rather scarce, medical advice and, possibly, hospitalization are always essential

Dyskinesia in brief: summary of dyskinesia

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on dyskinesia Disorder Dyskinesia: is part of the kinetic disorders. It consists of involuntary-hyperkinetic or hypokinetic- movements of the musculature. Dyskinesia represents an appreciable difficulty in controlling muscle movements. Etiopathological framework of dyskinesia Traumatic events, autoimmune diseases, ischemic pathologies of cerebral circulation, CNS infections, disorders of peripheral nerves and degenerative genetic diseases or caused by improper use of drugs Dyskinesias and DIMD DIMD: heterogeneous group of movement disorders induced


What is dyskinesia? Among the kinetic disorders, dyskinesia undoubtedly plays a cardinal role: the term refers to some involuntary movements of the musculature, which are hyperkinetic in some cases and hypokinetic in others. In all the pathologies in which there is an involuntary and uncontrolled reduction or increase in voluntary movements or, again, in an evident muscular difficulty, one can speak correctly of dyskinesia

Dyskinesia: clinical picture and risk factors

Definition of dyskinesia Dyskinesia is the headline of kinetic alterations: in the introductory treatment we have studied the different types of dyskinesias and the causes that trigger motility disorders. In this short article we will analyze the general clinical picture, therefore the altered kinetic manifestations induced by dyskinesias, and the possible risk factors for their onset

Dystonia in brief: Summary on Dystonia

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on dystonia. Dystonia Listed among the movement disorders known as dyskinesias, dystonia causes involuntary muscle contractions and spasms, which force the affected subject to take abnormal physical postures unusual movements Characteristics of movements dystonic Abnormal physical postures Uncomfortable and twisted postures Unusual movements, often painful and repetitive Reversibility of the dystonic position: not always possible immediately Dystonia: incidence 1988: first epidemiological study 300 patients every million healthy subjects; After som

Dystonia: Classification

Definition of dystonia Dystonias constitute a heterogeneous group of motor-muscular disorders, unfortunately destined to often worsen during old age. The spasms and involuntary contractions of the musculature force the subject to assume uncomfortable, abnormal and bizarre positions, as well as postural, sometimes painful twists


What is dystonia? Among the movement disorders - known as dyskinesias - dystonia stands out, responsible for involuntary muscular contractions and spasms that force the subject to take abnormal physical postures or to carry out unusual, often painful movements. A dystonic patient is unable to assume a natural position again or, otherwise, he would be able to modify the unusual position but gradually, using an abnormal effort and a sometimes exaggerated and vain physical suffering

Neurovegetative dystonia (paroxysmal)

Neurovegetative dystonia Among the generalized dystonias, some peculiar neurological syndromes stand out, characterized by muscular contractions and involuntary spasms of the extrapyramidal system: the disorder in question is known as neurovegetative or, more commonly, paroxysmal dystonia. Considering this syndrome as a mere "dystonia" can sometimes be reductive, considering that in this group of kinetic disorders there are also atetosis, chorea, ballism and cerebellar tremors, involuntary and uncontrolled movements of the musculature falling into the category of dyskinesias

Focal Dystonias

Definition of focal dystonia Focal dystonias identify alterations of voluntary musculature typical of adulthood: spasms, contractions and stiffening of some muscle groups, and again abnormal and abnormal postures, torsions and repetitive movements of some body regions, describe the pathological picture of dystonia

Dystonia: therapies and prognosis

Introduction The chapter concerning therapies aimed at treating dystonia is very articulated and, at the same time, delicate and thorny: unfortunately, Science has not yet identified a definitive and definitive cure for definitively eradicating the kinetic disorder. Each dystonic patient is unique, since the disease begins or progresses through different symptoms, sometimes stable over time, sometimes variable; consequently, the therapy must be personalized to the individual

Ophthalmic migraine

Generality Ophthalmic migraine is a form of headache characterized by the appearance of visual problems and / or neurological symptoms. Headaches, in particular, can be associated with photophobia, phosphenes (flashes and flashes of light), scotomas (vision of dark or colored spots), transient loss of vision (partial or complete), nausea, dizziness and tingling in the upper limbs

Hydrocephalus: diagnosis and treatment

What is hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is a complex CNS malformation characterized by an accumulation of CSF in the cerebral and / or meningeal ventricular space. In hydrocephalus, the exaggerated and pathological collection of cerebrospinal fluid causes an increase in intracranial pressure, in turn responsible for serious disorders: psychic alterations, convulsions, increased head circumference, intellectual deficits and mood disorders are just some of the innumerable symptoms induced by hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus - Symptoms

Introduction The term "hydrocephalus" refers to a pathological accumulation of liquor under-voltage, inside cerebral ventricles and / or meninges. When not treated early, hydrocephalus can trigger a series of catastrophic events until death. The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive and concise reading of symptoms and complications associated with hydrocephalus


Key points The term "hydrocephalus" defines a serious disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of CSF in the sub arachnoid space and in the cerebral ventricles. Hydrocephalus: causes The main cause of hydrocephalus lies in the exaggerated increase in intracranial pressure, which favors the accumulation of CSF in the brain


Definition of liquor The liquor is a clear and colorless fluid that permeates the central nervous system, protecting the brain and spinal cord from possible trauma. In medical literature, liquor is also recognized with other synonyms: spinal-spinal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid or more simply CSF (acronym of cerebrospinal fluid )

Neurodegenerative diseases

Generality Neurodegenerative diseases constitute a set of pathologies characterized by an irreversible and progressive loss of neuronal cells in certain areas of the brain. The pathologies included in the group of neurodegenerative diseases are different and, for many of them, the causes of onset are still unclear