Metabolic alkalosis

What is metabolic alkalosis? Metabolic alkalosis is an abnormal increase in the pH of tissues in the body. Among these, the blood and - consequently - the urine are particularly involved. Note: if specifically related to blood, excessive pH increase is better defined as alcalemia (blood pH> 7.40)

Calf cramps

Introduction Calf cramps are an annoying problem that affects men and women, young and old alike. At their origin we find precise risk factors; we are talking about risk factors and not causes, as subjectivity seems to play a predominant role on the onset (gravity and frequency) of calf cramps. Logically, the physio-pathological mechanisms remain the same for everyone, but not everyone seems to have the same importance

I.Randi's Acqua di Sirmione

Generality Sirmione water is a type of thermal water whose chemical and physical characteristics allow it to be used in the health field. In detail, the water of Sirmione - which owes its name to the place where the source from which it flows - is sulphurous salso-bromo-iodine water . Because of this peculiar composition, it is able to exert beneficial actions for the body and, in particular, for the skin and mucous membranes, but also for the respiratory tract, the osteoarticular apparatus and the vascular system

Afte on the Tongue of I.Randi

Generality Flavours on the tongue are a fairly common disorder that affects many people. This disorder is characterized by the appearance of bothersome and painful lesions on the surface of the tongue that can create numerous discomforts to the individual who suffers. In fact, due to the appearance of mouth ulcers on the tongue, the patient could encounter not a few difficulties even when performing simple and fundamental activities, such as drinking and eating


Definition and generalities In the medical field, when we talk about allodynia, we want to indicate a pain caused by a stimulus that, under normal conditions, would be harmless and unable to cause any kind of pain sensation. Allodynia can be substantially of two types: Superficial allodynia that occurs in the skin and mucous membranes; therefore, the perceived pain is, in fact, a pain of a superficial type

Colloidal Silver: What is it? Features, User Security and Side Effects of I.Randi

Generality Colloidal silver is a compound to which antibacterial , antiviral and antifungal properties are attributed. Before the advent of antibiotics, colloidal silver was widely used in the treatment of the most varied infections, both externally and internally. Instead, after the arrival of penicillin and other antibiotic drugs, it became obsolete and fell into disuse

Stuttering: causes and consequences

Primary stuttering As we have seen, primary stuttering tends to regress spontaneously with age: however, the disorder is noticeably embarrassing for the child, as well as being worrying for the parent, powerless before the verbal disfluency of the child. Many doctors say that a speech therapy aimed at small stuttering children does not exist: only when stuttering persists even after development, are recommended by the speech therapist


Stuttering: introduction From most people, stuttering is erroneously considered only as a language disorder that compromises the communication skills of those affected. This definition must be revised, since it minimizes the disturbance: stutterers, and experts in the field, for example, certainly do not consider stuttering as a simple disorder of the word, but as a much deeper problem, which outlines a set of verbal, communication and behavioral disorders

Stuttering therapy

Stuttering: introduction Stuttering outlines a language disorder that has its roots in the behavioral, emotional and communicative sphere: it represents an extremely complex condition, whose therapeutic approach is equally intricate. The ascent towards stuttering healing is long and tortuous, and only with the patient's willpower will the goal be reached in a short time

I.Randi cockroaches

Generality Blatte is the generic name used to indicate numerous species of insects belonging to the Blattodea order. Also known with the common name of " cockroaches ", there are 4, 600 different species of cockroaches currently known and divided into six different families. These are insects widespread almost all over the world and at any altitude (some species are present in places that are even over 2, 000 meters above sea level)

Elastic stockings

Generality Graduated compression stockings represent one of the most widely used remedies in all those cases in which the return of venous blood to the heart is reduced (venous insufficiency); this is the case, for example, of varicose veins. In other circumstances, elastic stockings can be used for preventive purposes, as in the case in which we want to prevent the formation of thrombus, for example, in patients bedridden after surgery


Definition of gangrene Gangrene (or gangrene) is a pathological condition characterized by the literal massive putrefaction of one or more body tissues. This is a terribly worrying clinical urgency because - due to the lack of blood flow - the gangrenous tissue inevitably dies (tissue necrosis). Often, due to insufficient blood supply, the gangrene-affected tissue is then rapidly invaded by bacteria

Cancer: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

What is gangrene We talk about gangrene to indicate the death of a tissue or the decomposition of a part of the body following a blockage / lack of blood flow. The causes of gangrene are multiple and must be sought mainly in ischemia (due to embolisms or thrombi), bacterial infections, freezing or structural changes of veins and arteries induced by pathologies such as diabetes or atherosclerosis

Anamnestic Certificate: What is it? What is needed and how is obtained by I.Randi

Introduction The medical history certificate is a particular type of medical certificate containing information on an individual's psycho-physical state of health. The medical history certificate must be issued in all the cases provided for by the law for which it is necessary to determine whether the subject has particular pathologies or physiological conditions that could hinder or influence the performance of activities of various types (for example, driving or use of weapons)

Tarlov cyst

Generality Tarlov cysts - also known as perineural cysts - are cystic lesions containing cerebrospinal fluid, which form at the level of the spine, particularly in the sacral area. Very often, Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic and are detected almost by accident during other diagnostic tests. As an indication, it is estimated that the incidence of Tarlov cysts in the adult population is 5%, but of this percentage, only 1% has the symptomatic form

Disinfection Wounds - How to Disinfect

Generality The disinfection of wounds is a very important tool to prevent potentially pathogenic micro-organisms from entering the body, causing damage, sometimes even very serious. The skin, in fact, works as a real barrier against these pathogenic microorganisms, but if it is damaged and damaged, then its protective action is lost, exposing the individual to the risk of contracting infections of various types

Drug Dependence, Drugs and Substances

Definition In the medical field, addiction is used to indicate a particular condition in which an individual suffering from the absolute need to assume a certain substance - such as, for example, drugs or narcotic substances - or to adopt certain behaviors, as happens, for example, in the case of gambling addiction

Lower Belly Pains of I.Randi

Generality Lower abdominal pain is a symptom of various physiological and, sometimes, pathological conditions. Often arising from gynecological causes, lower abdominal pains seem to be more prevalent in women. Nevertheless, in the presence of certain diseases, the symptom may also occur in male patients


Definition of ectopia "Ectopia" is a term taken from medical language, which expresses the location of an organ or tissue in a wrong location. The etymological analysis of the term further clarifies the concept: the word ectopia derives from the Greek ἔκτοπος ( éktopos ): the root ek - means "outside", while the ending - tòpos "place". The lite

Eutiroidismo of I.Randi

Generality The term euthyroidism refers to a condition in which the levels of thyroid hormones are normal . The condition of euthyroidism subsists when the thyroid is functioning properly producing adequate amounts of hormones; or when the gland in question does not function properly, but the normal physiological levels of thyroid hormones are reached and maintained by pharmacological treatments or surgery

grade fever

Definition of fever The term "fever" refers to a slight increase in body temperature, which rises above the normal values ​​(36.4 / 37.2 ° C) remaining below 38 ° C. Generally, "fever" is considered to be any body temperature rise above the normal values, of which the low-grade fever, barely exceeding the physiological values, represents the minimum variation. Howe

Fistula: symptoms, complications and therapy

Introduction Fistulas are pathological, tubular-shaped routes that are created between one organ and another or between an internal cavity and the skin. In other words, the fistula (never present in physiological conditions) is an anomalous canaliculus that connects two neighboring and normally separate anatomical structures


Definition By "fistula" we mean an anomalous canalicolo, of a purely pathological nature, which can put two internal organs or an internal cavity in contact with the skin (external). In general, fistulas are the final result of a severe inflammation, in turn caused by an abscess (complicated and pus-rich infection) which, bursting, gives rise to a tubular connection path

Short lingual frenule in short

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on the lingual short frenulum Disorder Short lingual frenzy: the thin fibro-mucous tissue lamina, which joins the ventral wall of the tongue to the mucosa of the oral floor, is too short Medical terminology Short frenule = ankyloglossia or tongue-tie Epidemiology Around 1990: sample of 1, 100 children: 78 small patients presented tongue-tie (corresponding to 7%) Currently: short frenulum affects 3-5% of newborns Males are more at risk (prevalence: 2 males, 1 female) Classification of the severity of the lingual short frenulum Grade F0: lingual raph

Lingual short frenule

Lingual short frenulus: definition From the anatomical point of view, the thin fibrous-mucosal tissue lamina connecting the ventral wall of the tongue to the mucosa of the oral floor is defined as the lingual frenum . When the lingual frenulum is particularly short compared to the norm, we speak of a "short frenulum": it is a congenital anomaly, which occurs, therefore, from birth

Tingling in the legs

Tingling in the legs: what they are In the medical field, the tingling in the legs is known as "paresthesia in the lower limbs": it is a symptom common to many diseases of varying severity. Patients suffering from tingling in the legs often complain of numbness or insensitivity to the lower limbs which, in the harmless forms, tend to regress spontaneously after a few seconds or minutes

Lingual short frenzy: therapies and complications

Definition A clear example of anatomical impediment, the short lingual frenulum is able to alter the interconnections between the bone bases and the postural control of the tongue, thus capable of creating anomalous tensions at the level of the hyoid bone, cervical disorders and postural problems affecting the tongue


What is glossitis? The term "glossitis" is used in the medical field to indicate a generic inflammation of the tongue, which appears visibly red, swollen and painful. We speak of acute glossitis when the characteristic symptoms of the disorder appear suddenly and for no apparent reason; when the swelling and redness of the tongue continue instead for long periods, it is probably a chronic glossitis

Reddened Throat of I.Randi

Generality The reddened throat is a symptom that manifests itself in various diseases and disorders. More specifically, the reddened throat is the consequence of inflammatory processes that generally develop at the pharynx. The reddened throat hardly presents itself as the only symptom, but it is frequently accompanied by a more or less intense symptomatology, which varies depending on the disorder or disease that led to inflammation

Hibernation: What is it? Types of Human Hibernation and Hibernation in the Medical Field of I.Randi

Introduction The meaning of hibernation can vary depending on the area in which the term is used. In fact, we talk about hibernation both in the field of human medicine and in the zoological field. In addition to this, the concept of hibernation is also used in the industrial field. Normally, the word "hibernation" triggers the imagination and makes us think of science fiction scenarios in which people freeze to wake up in a distant future, however, the current concept of human hibernation is very different and does not allow (for the moment ) the achievement of similar goals

Insomnia and emotional disorders

insomnia Insomnia is one of the most complex issues with a subjective perception: if in fact a person perceives a certain state of insomnia , from a different subject the same condition can be felt as absolutely normal. Before analyzing in depth what the causes of insomnia may be, it is necessary to define the phenomenon opposed to it: sleep

Venous insufficiency

Key points Venous insufficiency is a pathological condition due to a difficult return of venous blood to the heart. Causes Organic venous insufficiency: caused by pathological changes in the veins (eg stasis dermatitis, deep vein thrombosis), mainly due to defects in the valve function (eg varices) Functional venous insufficiency: due to a functional overload of the veins, subjected to overwork (eg lymphedema, reduced limb mobility) Symptoms and Complications The severity of symptoms varies from subject to subject depending on the severity of venous insufficiency: swollen ankles, calf cramps, e

Venous insufficiency: symptoms and treatments

Definition Venous insufficiency is a pathological disorder of the circulation, in which the veins do not carry the right amounts of blood from the extremities to the heart. Venous insufficiency can be related to pathological changes of the veins (stasis dermatitis, deep vein thrombosis, varicose veins) or functional overloads to which they are subjected (eg lymphedema, postural alterations, etc

Salt Lamps

Environmental purifiers A beneficial variant of the classic and highly sought-after "spray cans", disclosed and advertised by the media as "miraculous environmental purifiers", are the salt lamps: the environment is purified through the emission of negative ions, favored by the contact between salt, air and light


What is leukoplakia In the medical field, the term leukoplakia means a relatively worrying condition: it is a lesion typical of the oral cavity, which mainly affects the surface of the tongue and the internal mucous membranes of the lips and cheeks; however, the mucous membranes of the larynx and genital organs could also be involved

Leukoplakia in short

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on the leukoplakia Disorder Leukoplakia: typical lesion of the oral cavity that is distinguished by the formation of whitish plaques, often responsible for the perceptual alteration of the taste of food and discomfort within the mouth Leukoplakia and possible neoplastic degeneration Leukoplakia may be a precursor to neoplasms, although this degeneration is quite rare


Key points Lymphedema is a lymph stagnation in various parts of the body, an expression of impaired lymphatic system. Lymphedema: causes Primary lymphedema is caused by congenital anomalies affecting the lymphatic system. Secondary lymphedema can follow pathologies (adenopathies, diabetes, lymphangitis, bacterial cellulitis, erysipelas, lymphatic filariasis) or derive from surgical removal of lymph nodes (performed, for example, to remove tumor masses)

Lymphedema: Symptoms and Therapies

Definition of lymphedema Lymphedema is a clinical condition characterized by an enormous and exaggerated accumulation / stagnation of lymph in the tissues. Lymphedema, typical of the lower or upper limbs, is the immediate consequence of a blockage or impairment of the lymphatic system. Based on the triggering causes - analyzed in the previous article - we distinguished lymphedema in primary and secondary


Enlarged lymph nodes "Lymphadenopathy" means the swelling of the lymph nodes; it presents with an abnormal and uncontrolled enlargement of the same: the lymphadenopathy could be due to an invasion of foreign cells, to an alteration of the synthesis mechanisms of the constituent cells or to the hyperproduction of reticulo-endothelial cells

Speckled Tongue

Map language The tongue with white and red spots is a disorder known as a "language with a map": it is a chronic condition that generally presents with red spots that flake. The spots may appear more or less uniformly, in the margins, in the back of the tongue or at the level of the tip: the patches may also appear greyish, irregularly shaped and easy to flake off