infectious diseases


Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, belonging to the Caliciviridae family and responsible for the infectious pathogenesis of FOOD of gastroenteritis. Background The Noroviruses were discovered in 1972 and acquired the "unofficial" nickname of "Norwalk" or Norwalk-like virus ", due to a large epidemic developed in 1968 in an American hospital in the city of Norwalk, in the state of Ohio


Scrofula or scrofula is an infection of the lymph nodes of the neck better called tuberculous adenitis . It is an infectious disease generated by mycobacteria; in the adult it is often caused by Mycobacterium tubercolosis or scrofulaceum (also responsible for the much more known and lethal pulmonary tuberculosis ) which, in this case, penetrates the lymphatic circulation and affects some lymph nodes, above all those below the jaw; in contrast, scrofula or scrofula in children is caused by other "NON-tubercular or atypical" mycobacteria such as the Nontuberculous mycobacteria


Adenovirus: introduction In the microbiological field, the " Adenoviruses " represent a family of viruses comprising a hundred different serotypes: of these 100 species, 57 have been identified as possible carriers of infection in humans, responsible, in turn, for 5-10% of all infectious processes affecting the upper respiratory tract of children and adults (such as, above all, tonsillitis, colds, pneumonia and pharyngitis)


Definition and generalities Antiseptics are particular substances belonging to the great category of anti-infective agents , which also include disinfectants and antimicrobial drugs for systemic use. Antiseptics, generally, are substances used for the disinfection of the skin (intact and not) and of the mucous membranes of the individual, as well as of animals (antiseptics for veterinary use)


Anthrax: definition In the medical field, the term anthrax refers to a serious acute infection, fortunately rare, sustained by the bacillus anthracis , involving the skin, the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs: the anthrax danger is very high, since many of its variants are lethal . Anthrax develops mainly in herbivorous mammals, both wild and domestic (eg sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, etc


Literally, the term "aseptic" is synonymous with " substance or material without harmful / pathogenic microorganisms ": by analyzing the word etymologically, the term "aseptic" is composed of the root a- (privative grammatical function) and the ending -sectic - from Greek septikos or from the Latin septicum - indicating a putrefactive condition that favors sepsis

Aspergillosis: Aspergillus infections

Aspergillosis: definition The term "aspergillosis" defines a group of diseases caused by molds belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis are diseases affecting the respiratory system, partially infectious and partly allergic. Let us remember briefly that Aspergillus are commensal mycetes normally present in the body, especially on skin, oral cavity and digestive system: only in certain conditions, these microorganisms can become pathogenic and cause damage, mostly to the respiratory tract


Aspergillus: introduction Together with Fusarium sp . and Penicillium sp., the genus Aspergillus is the chapter of toxigenic molds: we are talking about miceti microorganisms able to synthesize a fair amount of toxins, whose toxic power is subordinated to the genotype of the producer strain. In common parlance, the term Aspergillo refers to the genus of belonging of this ubiquitous mold; the "aspergillosis", on the other hand, identify the infections transmitted by this pathogen

Koch's bacillus

What is that Koch's bacillus - whose scientific name is Mycobacterium tubercolosis - is the microorganism responsible for tuberculosis, a highly contagious infectious disease that - if not properly treated - can prove lethal. Koch's bacillus owes its name to the German doctor and microbiologist Robert Koch who discovered it in 1882, identifying it, precisely, as the etiological agent of tuberculosis


Generality Clostridium is the name of a genus of Gram-positive bacteria with particular characteristics, including the obligatory anaerobiosis, the existence in nature both in the vegetative state and in the form of spores, the great diffusion in the environment and the rod-shaped form. The genus Clostridium includes famous pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium tetani , Clostridium botulinum , Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens


Generality Diphtheria is a severe and extremely contagious infectious disease caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacillus. Typically responsible for the formation of a gray-black mass in the patient's throat, diphtheria causes respiratory problems, fever, swollen lymph nodes in the throat, weakness, cough, painful swallowing, sore throat, hoarseness, rhinorrhea, etc


Definition Disinfectants are a group of substances belonging to the group of anti-infective agents and used for the disinfection of environments, surfaces and objects of various kinds. Disinfectants are widely used in the medical field and in surgery, to disinfect environments and instruments, but at the same time they are widely used also in the home


Generality Ectoparasites are parasites that live on the outer surface of the host , or in easily accessible cavities, such as the nose, ears and mouth. The ectoparasites of medical interest are mostly arthropods (Phylum Arthropoda), the most famous of which are undoubtedly fleas, ticks, lice and mites


Introduction For a long time, enterococci were labeled as streptococcal microorganisms belonging - due to their peculiar antigenic characteristics - to Lancefield's D group. However, starting in the late 1980s, the researchers decided to review the aforementioned division and to insert the enterococci in a group of their own

Epstein Barr Virus - EBV

EBV virus Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV or HHV-4 or Herpes human virus 4) is a DNA virus belonging to the Herpesvirus family, the same as varicella, S. Antonio fire and labial / genital herpes. Infections carried by Epstein-Barr Virus are extremely common: just think that 90-95% of the world population has come into contact with EBV at least once in their life


Definition of endometritis Endometritis is an infectious-inflammatory process of the endometrium, the mucosa that covers the uterus internally. When the infection goes even to the level of the myometrium, one speaks correctly of endomyometritis. Step back to understand ... The endometrium is the mucous membrane that covers the uterine cavity internally The perimeter is the serous tunic of the uterine cavity, a peritoneal leaflet that constitutes the outermost part of the uterine wall The myometrium is instead the muscular layer of the uterine wall, between the perimeter and the endometrium

Yellow fever in short

Scroll down the page to read the yellow fever summary table Yellow fever: description Acute infectious disease, caused by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The name "yellow fever" was coined for the first time around the middle of the eighteenth century by Hughes Yellow fever: synonyms Black vomit Antilles fever Typhoid itch Yellow fever: geographical spread No cases of yellow fever have been observed in Asia, Europe and Australia Yellow fever is endemic in some areas of equatorial and southern America Typical disease of the tropical forests of central Africa Yellow fever: incidence 20

Intermittent fever

What is intermittent fever There is talk of intermittent fever when the basal temperature undergoes wide fluctuations, alternating periods of apyrxia (absence of fever) with others of pyrexia / hyperpyrexia (fever, even very high). In intermittent fever, the interval between the phases of hyperthermia and apyressia has a variable duration (hours / days) based on the disease that caused it

Yellow fever

Definition of yellow fever Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease caused by the bite of infected mosquitoes: it is commonly known as black vomit, Antilles fever or, again, as typhoid . Yellow fever is a serious health problem that particularly affects the tropical forests of central Africa and the southern Saharan area


Premise In microbiology, the genus " Fusarium " includes a rather numerous group of hyphal fungi, omnipresent molds in the soil capable of causing damage to roots, tubers and rhizomes. Due to its ability to generate rot and other plant diseases, Fusarium molds are classified as phytopathogenic fungi

Incubation of Varicella by I.Randi

Generality Varicella incubation time is defined as the period between the contraction of the infection and the onset of symptoms. Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious viral disease that causes a characteristic rash ( exanthema ). The infection that leads to the disease in question develops inside the patient slowly and initially asymptomatically

Leptospirosis in brief: summary of leptospirosis

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on leptospirosis Leptospirosis General term including a series of systemic infectious zoonoses with acute course, caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Leptospira Leptospirosis: synonyms Autumn fever Seven-day fever Swamp fever Mud fever Dog cutter fever Icterememorrhagic fever Icteric leptospirosis Pork fever Leptospirosis: first descriptions Late eighteenth century: first description of leptospirosis by a well-known surgeon, but diagnosed as a plague 1870: first correct diagnosis 1917: identification of the responsible beat Leptospirosis: epi

Leptospirosis: symptoms and clinical forms

Leptospirosis As analyzed in the previous article, leptospirosis represents a group of infectious syndromes caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. However, it should be pointed out that not all species of these microorganisms are pathogenic to humans: over 200 different serotypes are currently recognized - known with the name serovar - and the serovar icterohaemorrhagiae is certainly the most dangerous and virulent


Definition of leptospirosis "Leptospirosis" is a general term comprising a series of systemic infectious zoonoses, with an acute course, caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Leptospira . Leptospirosis is known by many synonyms, and among the best known are: autumn fever (akiyami, in the Japanese language), seven-day fever (nanukayami, in Japanese), swine fever or - in the case of icteric leptospirosis - swamp fever, mud fever, dog-cutter fever or jaundice hemorrhage


Key points Lymphangitis (or blood poisoning) is an inflammation of the lymphatic vessels with a predominantly bacterial etiology. Lymphangitis: causes Most of the diagnosed lymphangitis is triggered by streptococci. Also other pathogens can trigger lymphangitis: staphylococci, Spirillum minus , Brugia malayi , Pasteurella multocida and Wuchereria bancrofti

Pathogenic Yeasts - Characteristics and Diseases

Generality Yeasts , from those with pathogenic to harmless properties, are eukaryotic microorganisms consisting of a single cell and belonging to the kingdom of fungi. Heterotrophic living beings, yeasts reproduce by binary splitting or budding, they prefer damp environments and do not grow by means of so-called hyphae (which instead are typical of all other species of mushrooms)

Lyme disease for short

Scroll down the page to read the summary table on Lyme disease Lyme disease Anthropozoonosis of bacterial origin transmitted by ticks which mainly affects the skin; often the internal organs, the joints and the nervous system are also affected Lyme disease: incidence The most frequent human disease transmitted by ticks 1985: 14, 000 patients diagnosed with this disease were diagnosed Italy: Lyme disease endemic in the North (in Liguria, Trentino and the Carso) Globally: Lyme disease has endemic outbreaks around the world, ranging from Japan to Canada, from Australia to Europe Etymology of the t

Sleep Disease - African Tripanosomiasis

Key points Sleeping sickness (or African trypanosomiasis) is a parasitic infection transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Causes Sleeping sickness is caused by a flagellated protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei : Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense : etiological agent of East African trypanosomiasis (subacute sleep disease, which presents a violent and brief course) Tripanosoma brucei gambiens : causal agent of the Gambian African sleeping sickness (chronic trypanosomiasis) Symptoms Hemolymphatic phase of sleeping sickness: joint pain, intermittent fever, swollen lymph nodes

Lyme disease

What is Lyme disease? Lyme disease is a pathology of bacterial origin that mainly affects the skin, but often internal organs, joints and the nervous system are also affected. Lyme disease belongs to the anthropozoonosis group, that is to say that group of diseases that can be transmitted naturally from vertebrate animals to humans

Pneumococcus - infection, symptoms, diagnosis

Introduction Although they usually populate the respiratory mucosa without causing damage, pneumococci, finding the optimal conditions for them, can replicate themselves disproportionately, transforming themselves from commensal microorganisms to terrible opportunistic pathogens, capable of triggering diseases of varying size


The meningococcus In microbiology, meningococcus is known as Neisseria meningitidis : as shown by the scientific name of the bacterium, meningococcus is the etiopathological agent responsible for meningitis, a rare but very serious disease. In addition to inflammation of the meninges, meningococcal infections can induce septicemia (meningococcal sepsis), therefore a clinical condition in which the bacterium, which has reached the bloodstream, spreads to the other parts of the body, creating infection and inflammation

Meningococcal meningitis and sepsis

Meningococcal Meningococcus ( Neisseria meningitidis ) is the etiopathological agent involved in meningitis and meningococcal sepsis; in the previous article we presented the pathogen from the microbiological point of view, also focusing on the etiopathogenesis, therefore on the mode of infection. In this article the attention will be directed to the description of the diseases mediated by meningococcus, as well as to the analysis of symptoms and possible therapeutic strategies


Generality Molds are eukaryotic organisms, consisting of more than one cell and belonging to the kingdom of fungi. Heterotrophic living beings, molds can have toxic, allergic or pathogenic properties towards human beings. Their typical mode of reproduction is sporogenesis; their classic habitats are the hot and humid environments; finally, their vegetative growth includes the production of hyphae

Papilloma virus

HPV related infections Acronym of Human Papilloma Virus , HPV is involved in hyperprolifrative lesions located in various mucosal and cutaneous districts, including vulva, cervix, vagina, anus and lining of mouth and throat; it is curious how the Papilloma virus is responsible for the manifestation of both condylomata acuminata or genital warts (of simple resolution), and carcinomas of the uterine cervix, potentially lethal

Pappataci of I.Randi

Generality The sand flies are arthropods of health interest belonging to the order of flies. The sand flies - also known as sandflies - are insects with wings that are part of the large group of ectoparasites. These Diptera are of medical interest because they are capable of transmitting various infectious diseases to humans and animals, among which the best known is undoubtedly Leishmaniasis


Introduction Widely exploited in the dairy industry for the production of fermented rind cheeses, Penicillium is among the edible and useful molds. The "usefulness" of penicillium, however, is not limited simply to the food industry: this mold, in fact, finds extraordinary applications in the pharmaceutical sector


Premise In international cases, pneumococcus is portrayed as the etiopathological factor most involved in the onset of pneumonia. The current scientific name of the pneumococcus is Streptococcus pneumoniae , while in the past it was better known as Diplococcus pneumoniae , in reference to the peculiar morphology of the bacterium: in fact, observed under an optical microscope, the pneumococcus appears as two joined cocci, apparently fused at one end, which gives the characteristic "flame" shape


Generality Polio , or polio , is an acute and extremely contagious viral disease, which can affect the nerves of the central nervous system and cause temporary or permanent forms of paralysis . Poliomyelitis is caused by an enterovirus called poliovirus , whose transmission among humans occurs mainly through the fecal-oral route

Proteus: Infections and Diseases

Introduction To the genus Proteus belong three species of high pathological interest: Proteus penneri, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris ; these bacteria are involved in various infections, above all of a nocosomal nature and of the urinary tract. Microbiological description The micro-organisms of the genus Proteus are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family: they are gram-negative, aerobic, mobile bacteria, with a rod-like (elongated) shape

Tick ​​bite

Premise Often there is a tendency to associate tick bites only with Lyme disease, because it is the best known: what is stated is not always correct. In fact, ticks can cause many other disorders, more or less serious, based on the patient's state of health, the time taken to remove the arachnid, the immune system of the infected subject and, of course, the type of tick