Biochemistry of fatty acids

Triglycerides are hydrolyzed in the intestine thanks to the intervention of pancreatic lipase. Once hydrolysed to glycerol and free fatty acids, they can be absorbed by the cells of the intestinal epithelium, which reconvert the glycerol and fatty acids into triglycerides. The triglycerides are then released into the lymphatic circulation, associated with particular lipoprotein particles called chylomicrons

Muscle Catabolism

Muscular catabolism is a phenomenon mainly induced: from malnutrition (as happens in the Third World or in case of eating disorders - DCA) alcoholism from some chronic diseases from sporting practice NOT correctly supported by the power supply. NB . the presence of over-training can also contribute. In some EXCESSIVELY protracted and / or intense sporting performances (marathon, march, triathlon-iron man, cycling tour, etc

White fibers

Red fibers vs white fibers In physiology the distinction between white and red fibers derives from the correlation between the color of the muscle cell and its speed of contraction. The "white muscles" (or better, clear) are mainly glycolytic (anaerobic glycolysis energy metabolism), therefore faster but less resistant than the red ones; vice versa, the red muscles are more "efficient" (less strength and greater economy in effort) but, from the energetic point of view, less "effective" in the contraction

Red Fibers

Red fibers VS white fibers The differentiation between white fibers and red fibers is the result of the association between the color of the muscle and the respective speed of contraction; the "red muscles" are mainly slow but resistant, while the "light muscles" are more "effective" (greater strength and speed of contraction) but less "efficient" from the energy point of view (less autonomy during the effort)

Specialize intermediate muscle fibers

The intermediate muscle fibers are polymers of muscle cells that, thanks to their characteristic adaptability to the effort, can be specialized acquiring more aerobic (oxidative) or anaerobic (anaerobic glycolysis and creatine kinase) metabolic characteristics. Specializing intermediate muscle fibers means orienting the training stimulus based on the results to be obtained; taking into consideration training with overloads, specialization can evolve: in the oxidative direction increasing the duration and reducing the intensity in glycolytic-anaerobic direction increasing the intensity and reduc

Motor units

Skeletal muscle fibers associate with one another in motor units; this structuring is fundamental to increase the "control" of the muscle shortening otherwise limited to the level of the single fibrocells. What is motor unity? Muscles are innervated by pools (families) of motor neurons; comparing the number of nerve cells to that of muscle fibrocells, it turns out that the motor neurons are far inferior to the fibers to be stimulated

Cortisol: the worst enemy of Fitness

By Dr. Nicola Sacchi - Author of the book: Drugs and doping in sport - Cortisol is also called the stress hormone, as it is produced by the body under stress conditions, recognized by the body as a disorder of homeostasis (cellular balance with the environment). Any event capable of disturbing cellular or organic homeostasis is considered by the body as a stressing agent

The Bodyrecomposition project

Edited by Antonio Rubbino Leptin: the "master regulator" A Kennedy study of about 55 years ago put forward the hypothesis that there was a hormone secreted by fat cells that communicated to the hypothalamus the energetic state of the organism. The idea of ​​the existence of this hormone (or better "cytokine"), called leptin, was later confirmed by subsequent studies i Leptin (from the Greek "leptos", "lean") is a cytokine produced and released by fat cells. Th

The VO2max in fitness

It is the maximum oxygen consumption that a subject presents in the course of rhythmic, protracted and intense muscular activity, which engages large muscle masses (usually the lower limbs), breathing air, at sea level. In practice it is the maximum quantity of O2 that can be captured - transported - used by the body and represents the ability of an individual to produce and use energy, generated by the aerobic oxidative system

Physical Relations and Muscular Contraction

By Dr. Dario Mirra Skeletal muscle: outline of functional anatomy The muscle is composed of different elements that form its structure. The different functional units of the striated muscle are called sarcomeres or inocommates, real functional units of movement. To have a clear idea of ​​the way in which the muscle creates movement, and having already the biochemical, physiological and neurological function underlying the muscle contraction, it is necessary to have two clear concepts: the constitution of the protein mesh that underlies the functions of the muscle itself; the physical relationsh

The Bodyrecomposition project

Edited by Antonio Rubbino Insulin sensitivity "Insulin sensitivity" refers to how our body's tissues respond to the hormone insulin. Insulin is a "preserving" hormone, allowing glucose to enter cells; more precisely; insulin, by binding to its membrane receptors, allows glucose transporters (GLUT proteins) to cross the cell membrane

Biochemistry of amino acids

Proteins ingested with food are hydrolyzed in the stomach and small intestine to produce free amino acids and oligopeptides. These products are absorbed by the cells of the small intestine and poured back into the bloodstream; most of the amino acids are therefore used by the various organs and tissues for cell renewal processes (protein turnover)


Molecule present in all living organisms, for which it represents the main form of energy storage immediately available. FEATURES Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, consists of a molecule of adenine and one of ribose (sugar with 5 carbon atoms) to which three phosphoric groups are bound, by means of two high-energy bonds


Anatomical description Anatomy and Physiology of the lower limb veins The veins are blood vessels with a wall formed of three layers which, from the inside to the outside, are respectively: The Intima tunic, covered with a single layer of extremely flat epithelial cells called endothelial cells; The Medium cassock, middle muscular layer, thinner than that of the arteries; The cassock Adventitia , the most external, formed by connective tissue (supporting collagen and elastin)


Generality Fingerprints are literally defined as " mark left by fingertips on a smooth surface, used as a means of personal identification ". Fingerprints can also be defined as the trace left by the dermatoglyphics present on the fingertips of the hands. The dermatoglyphics are nothing but the set of the crests and furrows present on the fingertips of the hands and which take different forms from individual to individual

Pleural fluid

Definition of pleural fluid Pleural fluid is defined as the fluid interposed between the two serous sheets that make up the pleura, that double layer of connective tissue having the function of supporting and covering the lungs. An adequate amount of pleural fluid is essential to promote breathing: acting as a lubricant, this liquid guarantees the flow of the two serous sheets

Belly button

Generality The navel is a cupoliform dimple located on the anterior surface of the abdomen, along the median line. This structure corresponds to the insertion point of the umbilical cord (or funiculus) , which, during intrauterine development, connects the fetus to the maternal body, guaranteeing it the supply of oxygenated blood and nutrients

Prostaglandine: What are they? Nomenclature and Functions. Role in Inflammation and in I.Randi Therapy

Introduction Prostaglandins are molecules of natural origin normally produced by the body. In detail, these are derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are synthesized in many tissues of the body and covering different functions within it. Despite being implicated in numerous physiological processes , the most known role of prostaglandins is most likely the one they play in inflammatory processes

Saprophytes - Characteristics of Saprophytes

In botanical language, the term "saprophyte" (from the Greek sapros, rotten and phyton, plant) is now obsolete and outdated, although some scientific texts still carry this word to indicate all those microorganisms that, to live, need the nourishment of matter decaying organic matter . A saprophyte organism, referring to both animals and plants, feeds on inert organic substances, such as humus, corpses, urine, excrement, milk, wine, etc

Blood Oxygen

Importance of hemoglobin Oxygen is transported in the blood through two distinct mechanisms: its dissolution in the plasma and its link to hemoglobin contained in red blood cells or erythrocytes. Since oxygen is scarcely soluble in aqueous solutions, the survival of the human organism is subordinated to the presence of adequate quantities of hemoglobin

Atheroma or Atherosclerotic plaque - How and why it is formed

Generality What is an atheroma? The atheroma, better known as atherosclerotic plaque, can be defined as a degeneration of the arterial walls due to the deposition of plaques formed essentially by fat and scar tissue. Complications An artery infused with lipid material and fibrotic tissue loses elasticity and resistance, is more susceptible to rupture and reduces its internal lumen, hindering blood flow


Cartilage: what it is and what it is used for Articular cartilage is an elastic tissue with remarkable resistance to pressure and traction (it is a specialized connective with a supporting function). It has a pearly white color and covers the ends of the joint bones, protecting them from friction. Its function is similar to that of a shock absorber bearing which with its action safeguards normal joint relationships and allows movement

ORAC: measurement of antioxidant power

Test Orac (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) The ORAC test is the method that is recently becoming the reference technique for measuring the antioxidant action of foods and supplements. The test is based on the ability of an antioxidant substance to inhibit the oxidative degradation of a fluorescent molecule caused by peroxyl radicals (ROO •).

Collagen: Functions and Skin Aging

Collagen functions Collagen is one of the most important proteins in vertebrates and represents one third of the total proteins of the human body, where it plays a fundamental role in the structure and functionality of organs and tissues, such as skin, cartilage, muscle tissue. Collagen certainly occupies the most important role among the structural proteins of our body

Antioxidant power: how to measure it?

In order to maintain a correct balance between free radicals and antioxidant systems, it is important to constantly provide the body with an adequate supply of molecules with antioxidant properties from the outside, to prevent the natural defenses against radicals, constituted by the antioxidant barrier, from running out

Free radicals and oxidative stress

All living species are continually exposed to reactive agents that attack organisms from the outside and from within. Over the last few decades, the focus of research has focused in particular on free radicals due to their involvement in the onset and development of numerous diseases. Free radicals are highly unstable chemical species due to the presence in their structure of one or more unpaired electrons

The heart

The heart is a hollow organ of muscular nature, located in the thoracic cavity in a central area called the mediastinum. Its dimensions are similar to those of a man's fist; its weight, in an adult individual, is around 250-300 grams. It has a roughly conical shape and its axis is directed forward and downward, so the right ventricle is located a little more forward than the left

Erythropoietin (EPO)

See also: EPO and altitude training erythropoietin Erythropoietin, known to most as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone (consisting of 193 amino acids whose first 27 are lost at the time of secretion) that regulates the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis). It is mainly synthesized by kidney cells and to a small extent by the liver which becomes the main producer only during fetal life

Stool characteristics

What are Feces? The faeces are the waste material of the organism that is eliminated by the rectum. Under normal conditions, the stools are 75% water and 25% solid, including bacteria, undigested fibers, fat, inorganic matter (calcium and phosphates), mucus, desquamated intestinal cells and some proteins

Water: an excellent drink

By Dr. Johnny Padulo Water is the quantitatively most important constituent of the body and it is known that without water it is possible to live only for a few days. In the adult, a loss of two liters of water leads to fatigue and inefficiency; a loss of four liters results in disability, a deficit of eight is lethal

Bile acids

Bile acids are detergent substances, that is, capable of dispersing water insoluble lipids in aqueous solution. For this reason bile acids play a leading role in the processes of digestion and absorption of lipids. Bile acids are produced by the liver from cholesterol and - together with their conjugates and their salts - are the main constituents of bile


Generality The acetabulum , or acetabulum , is the particular lateral hollow of the iliac bone, used to house the head of the femur and form, with the latter, the hip. Resulting from the contribution of ilium, ischium and pubis - the three bony parts that form the iliac bone - the acetabulum is a rather complex skeletal region, in which the anatomists identify some fundamental portions, known as: acetabular lip, lunate side of the acetabulum, acetabular notch and acetabular fossa


Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a substance produced by our body to transfer nerve impulses to multiple points in the central and peripheral nervous system. The neurons that secrete acetylcholine are called cholinergics; analogous speech for its receptors, which are distinguished in nicotinic and muscarinic receptors

2,3 Difosphoglycerate

The 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate (2, 3 DPG) is a compound derived from an intermediate product of glycolysis; it concentrates particularly on the erythrocyte level, since the red blood cells - being devoid of mitochondria - exploit the anaerobic lactate metabolism (homolactical fermentation of glucose) to obtain energy


Adipocytes is the term with which scholars identify the cells of adipose tissue, nowadays better known as adipose organ. Main functions of adipocytes Adipocytes are cells particularly suited to the accumulation of fat, which store large lipid droplets occupying most of the cell volume; to make room for these adipose accumulations, the cytoplasm of the adipocytes is stratified against the cell walls, where the other organelles are also massed, such as the nucleus and ribosomes


Generality Albumin is the most abundant protein present in plasma. It is produced by the liver and has three main functions: Transport and eliminate waste substances that are expelled with urine (such as bilirubin, fatty acids and hormones); Keep the oncotic pressure in balance, which regulates water exchanges between the capillaries and the interstitial fluid that surrounds the blood vessels and wets the tissues; Build a reserve of amino acids for the body


Androgens are hormones produced by the adrenal and sexual glands, both male and female. In humans, the main producers of androgens are the testes, while in women these hormones are synthesized in an important way both by ovarian cells and by the adrenal gland. The word androgens has Greek origins and means "producing man"

Glucogenic (glucogenetic) amino acids

The primary function of amino acids is to participate in protein synthesis, a biological process that leads to the formation of proteins necessary to support different functions of the body. Each protein, in fact, consists of a variable number of amino acids (indicatively from 50 to 2000). In relation to their function, proteins can be classified into: regulators (enzymes, peptide hormones), structural (collagen and elastin), contractiles (muscle proteins), transport (such as plasma proteins, such as albumin, or hemoglobin) and defense (antibodies or immunoglobulins)


An antigen is a molecule recognized as foreign or potentially dangerous by an organism's immune system, which fights it through the production of antibodies. Most of the antigens are able to produce a specific immune response, aimed at their removal and coordinated by the T and B lymphocytes (the same cells responsible for their recognition)

Anatomy of skeletal muscle and muscle fibers

Anatomy of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is formed by a set of rather long, cylindrical cells with fusiform ends, called muscle fibers. If it is cut transversely it is noticed that these fibers are not isolated, but grouped in fascicles and wrapped by connective tissue. Elastic fibers, nerves and blood vessels run between one file and another, branching out to distribute to the various cells; the rich vascularization determines the typical coloring of the skeletal muscle (thanks to the myoglobline that circulates in the blood)