woman's health

Physical exercise in women: positive and negative effects

Edited by Alessandro De Vettor It has long been known that excessive physical activity is closely related to significant negative effects, sometimes with serious repercussions on the whole organism. On the other hand, multiple studies have shown that adequate physical exercise produces significant beneficial effects on various organs and systems, such as the cardio-vascular, musculoskeletal and gastro-intestinal systems

Varicose veins

INDEX OF THE SECTION »Varicose veins: Anatomy »Varicose veins: Introduction and epidemiology »Varicose veins: Causes and Classification »Varicose veins: Symptoms and Diagnosis »Varicose veins: Therapy »Varicose veins: Drugs to treat varicose veins »Varicose veins: Remedies for varicose veins Generality The World Health Organization defines varicose veins (or varices ) as abnormal and saccular dilations of the veins, especially of the lower limbs, which often take a tortuous course. They


Definition of adenomyosis Glossary Endometrium (endometrial tissue): mucosa that internally covers the uterus Myometrium: muscular layer of the uterine wall, between the perimeter (serous tunic of the uterus, its most external part) and endometrium "Adenomyosis" is a purely medical term used to indicate a benign pathological condition in which a portion of endometrial tissue * develops along the muscular walls of the uterus


Anhedonia: definition "Anhedonia" is defined as the total or partial inability to experience satisfaction, fulfillment or interest, for the usual pleasant activities, such as food, sex and interpersonal relationships. "Anedonia" is synonymous even with disinterest in sleeping, relaxing and living: it is therefore clear that anhedonia reflects mental disorders, depression and chronic psychosis in general

Post pill amenorrhea

Post pill amenorrhea: definition Following the interruption of a hormonal contraceptive treatment, the menstrual flow could delay to appear for some months: it is a disorder known as post pill amenorrhea. The contraceptive pill is useful to regularize the menstrual cycle, as well as, obviously, to ensure the contraceptive effect: it is therefore clear how - following an estrogenic suspension, although respecting the rules dictated by the gynecologist - the body may be affected suffering alterations about the rhythm of menstruation

Contraceptive Ring: Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages The contraceptive ring acts like the pill, releasing a very low dose of hormones that prevents ovulation. It is used by many women for its many advantages, listed below: Very high contraceptive safety (over 99%); The hormones released by the contraceptive ring pass quickly into the bloodstream, the mucosa of vaginal lining being particularly thin and rich in blood vessels; The vaginal ring, unlike the contraceptive pill, does not involve the first passage through the liver, nor through the gastrointestinal tract: in this way, the contraceptive safety is assured even in the case of di

Contraceptive Ring

NuvaRing contraceptive ring A new goal on the contraceptive front has been reached with the marketing of the slow-release hormonal contraceptive ring (also called the vaginal ring): an innovative and safe method for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. The only contraceptive ring sold in Italian pharmacies is the NuvaRing , admitted for the first time in our territory on 12 June 2001: it is estimated that around 1


Definition of adnexitis Annexed is any inflammatory process that affects the appendages of the uterus, or ovaries and tubes (hence the name "annexed"); in the medical language, one speaks more precisely of salpingovaritis, which can manifest itself in a chronic, subacute or acute form. When phlogosis only affects salpingis, we speak of salpingitis (a phenomenon that is also very frequent), while the term "pelvic inflammatory disease" is suitable for expressing inflammation extended also to the peritoneum

Internal absorbents: mode of use, advantages, disadvantages

Watch the video X Watch the video on youtube Interior absorbents: what are they? Internal sanitary napkins (or tampons) absorb menstrual flow directly into the vaginal canal, preventing the same blood from escaping. Internal pads are a valid alternative to external pads: they are hygienic, comfortable and offer maximum discretion

Interior absorbents

Internal absorbents: definition Internal pads are cotton and / or rayon pads to be inserted gently into the vaginal cavity during menstruation. The function of internal absorbents is to absorb the menstrual flow, preventing the uterine blood from escaping from the vagina. The reason is not well understood, but the fact is that around the topic "internal pads" there are still many prejudices, often unfounded

Vaginal Burning

Generality Vaginal burning is a fairly common female intimate disorder , which can be determined by various causes. In most cases, this symptom is found during an irritation , an inflammatory state or an infection of the vagina (muscle-membranous duct that extends from the vulva to the cervix). Furthermore, considering the anatomy of the female genitals, the burning could also derive from a pathological process affecting the vulva or urinary tract

Infiltrative Ductal Carcinoma of I.Randi

Generality Infiltrative ductal carcinoma is a special type of breast cancer. Also known as invasive ductal carcinoma , this tumor is thus defined for its ability to cross the boundary of the mammary structure to invade other body areas. Unfortunately, it is one of the most widespread forms of breast cancer which, in some cases, can also be associated with other types of cancer, such as lobular carcinoma

Contraceptive Patch

What is the contraceptive patch? The contraceptive patch represents an innovative hormonal contraceptive method, whose mechanism of action is almost equivalent to that provided by the pill: the correct use of the patch not only ensures an extraordinary prevention of unwanted pregnancies (equal to about 99%), but it also allows the woman to live a serene sexual life, separated from anxieties and fears, the "enemies of love"

Contraceptive Patch: contraindications

Contraindications for use The use of the contraceptive patch should not be prescribed in the following cases: Thrombosis, angina pectoris; Severe hypertension; Diabetes mellitus with vascular involvement; Liver disorders, liver neoplasms; Breast cancer or estrogen dependent tumors; Hypersensitivity to one or more active ingredients contained in the patch; Severe, persistent and abnormal spotting; It is preferable not to take herbal products, supplements or drugs containing St


Definition of cervicitis The term "cervicitis" defines an inflammatory process, with an acute or chronic course, involving the uterine cervix (or cervix). Often, cervicitis is an expression of venereal diseases, but other causes of an extra-infective nature have also been identified. Cervicitis can be completely asymptomatic; therefore, in the absence of symptoms, the patient is not aware of the ongoing inflammation

Contraceptive patch, weight gain, advantages and disadvantages

Contraceptive patch and weight gain The belief that the use of the contraceptive patch would make you fat should be debunked: the contraceptive patch has no effect on weight gain, nor on the formation / increase of cellulite. It is estimated, approximately, a possible weight gain of just 300/500 grams during the three weeks of application of the patch: an almost fictitious increase, if we consider that during the seven days of suspension the weight returns as before

Interrupted Coitus

Interrupted coitus: definition Interrupted coitus is a natural contraceptive method which consists in the immediate and prompt interruption of sexual intercourse a few moments before ejaculation. In an attempt to avoid fertilization, the interrupted coitus therefore provides for the withdrawal of the penis from the vagina shortly before the intercourse: during these moments, the man must worry about directing the ejaculate away from the woman's external genitals

Natural contraception

Introduction Within the sexual and contraceptive scenario, not only the pill, the transdermal patch, the vaginal ring, the condom and the IUD spiral stand out: the woman, listening to her own body and interpreting the signals that the body sends them, could prevent unwanted pregnancies using natural contraception methods

Menstrual Cups

Menstrual cups: what are they? An alternative to the classic internal pads are menstrual cups: these are small containers in latex or silicone to be inserted inside the vagina during menstruation, in order to collect the menstrual flow. Unlike internal tampons, menstrual cups do not absorb uterine blood, rather they collect it inside them

Vaginal Creams

What are The vaginal creams are special pharmaceutical formulations, specially made to be administered at the level of the vaginal mucosa, in order to counteract disorders of different types. The active ingredients contained within the vaginal creams, therefore, vary depending on the type of disease that needs to be treated and - depending on the active ingredient used - the vaginal cream can be dispensed with or without presentation of the prescription

Diaphragm and Contraception: Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages of the diaphragm The diaphragm is a barrier (mechanical) method of contraception, thus preventing sperm from reaching the uterus: it does not cause any side effects typical of hormonal-release contraceptive methods, such as nausea, headache, breast enlargement, weight gain, etc. Furthermore, the diaphragm can be used by the woman as she likes, without respecting some "deadlines" (typical of the contraceptive pill, for example) and is only used at the time of the report (although it is advisable to enter it a few moments before and leave it inside too) 6 hours after the repo

Contraceptive diaphragm

What is the contraceptive diaphragm? The condom is not the only barrier method of contraception: in fact, in this category the contraceptive diaphragm also stands out, a small soft rubber dome mounted on a metal ring that is quite malleable and foldable, which the woman inserts near the neck of the uterus (transvaginal) a few moments before sexual intercourse


Dyspareunia: generalities The term "dispareunia" derives from the Greek words δυσ (difficulty) παρά (near) εÙνή (bed): it indicates a painful condition felt by the woman during sexual intercourse, near the area that affects the vagina; although mostly considered a female disorder, dyspareunia can also affect men, involving the genitals. However,

Breast Cycle Pain

A common complaint Breast pain is an extremely common discomfort: it is estimated that 7 women out of 10 have experienced, at least on one occasion, this type of disorder. Most often, breast pain coincides with the premenstrual period; in these cases, the mastodinìa (medical term used to indicate breast pain) is accentuated as the time of menstruation approaches, to progressively regress in the following days.

Breast pain

mastodynia The expression "pain in the breast" is commonly used to indicate a generic tenderness to the breasts. Typical of women, breast pain is an extremely subjective symptom, ranging from a simple breast tension to a sharp, intense and penetrating pain. Scientifically defined mastodinìa, breast pain worries (often to an excessive extent) women: it is not in fact a case that more than half of breast visits are booked precisely because of a generic breast pain.

Cyclo-independent breast pain (non-cyclic mastodynia)

Non-cyclic mastodynia One speaks of non-cyclic mastodynia when breast pain manifests itself independently of the menstrual cycle. In such circumstances, breast pain follows an imprecise and often unpredictable pattern: non-cyclic mastodynia can in fact appear suddenly without a specific motivation, disappearing equally unexpectedly or persisting for long periods without ever regressing


Key concepts Eclampsia is the most feared complication of gestosis: it is a potentially deadly syndrome, characterized by convulsions often associated with mental confusion, coma and visual deficits. Eclampsia: causes The cause of eclampsia is not known. Possible risk factors include: alteration of the endocrine system, increase in free fatty acids, vascular endothelial damage, deficiency of coagulation capacity, incorrect diet, infections, nulliparity

Eclampsia: Complications, Diagnosis, Prognosis

Complication of gestosis Eclampsia is the most terrible acute complication of gestosis (or pre-eclampsia): we are talking about a complex exclusive pregnancy syndrome, characterized by the appearance of convulsions, mental confusion, headache, vision changes and coma. Eclampsia is a potentially deadly disease, which unfortunately still has many victims: pregnant women with hypertension, edema and proteinuria (trilogy of symptoms that marks preeclampsia) must be constantly monitored, because they are more exposed to the risk of eclampsia

Eclampsia: Care and Prevention

Introduction The term eclampsia defines a serious and acute complication of gestosis: exclusive of pregnancy, eclampsia is a syndrome characterized by hypertension, edema and proteinuria associated with convulsions and coma. In previous articles we have researched the possible predisposing factors for eclampsia, and clarified which symptoms characterize this serious disease, specifying the possible complications

Intramural fibroma

Intramural fibroma Among the uterine myomas there is the intramural fibroma, a benign tumor that develops around the uterine wall, causing a change in the structure and volume of the uterus. More precisely, while subserosal fibroma affects the outer uterine wall, the intramural myoma grows in the thickness of the wall itself; it is therefore defined as "intramural" precisely because its location is intraparietal

Fibroids in pregnancy

Premise Given the high frequency of fibroids in women of childbearing age, it is not uncommon for the fibromatous condition to arise precisely during pregnancy. For the same reason, also considering the frequent asymptomatic nature of the same, the majority of uterine fibroids are diagnosed, for the first time, in pregnant women


What is frigidity? The term frigidity derives from the Latin frigiditas - frigidus , which refers to a (literal) "sexual coldness"; this appellation identifies the absence of heat of the woman, both from the physical, psychological and emotional point of view, in reference to the sexual intimate moment


Definition of galactorrhea Galactorrhea indicates a serous or milky secretion from a nipple (or both), which occurs in women outside the lactation period ( non-puerperal galactorrhoea ). This anomalous milky secretion, typical of galactorrhea, appears very similar to colostrum (the "first milk" produced by the mammary glands in the immediate postpartum)

Ectopic pregnancy

Definition When the implantation of the fertilized oocyte takes place in a location other than the uterine cavity, we speak of an ectopic pregnancy , commonly called extrauterine . If the ectopic pregnancy was not diagnosed in time, the prognosis, unfortunately, will be poor and the outcome fatal. In the discussion of the article the different types of ectopic pregnancy, the incidence of the disorder and the symptomatological picture will be analyzed

Extrauterine pregnancy: causes and therapies

Definition Extrauterine (or ectopic) pregnancy outlines a pathological condition in which the egg nestles in sites other than the endometrium, or in an unusual area within the uterine cavity itself. During the discussion we will analyze the causes that predispose to uterine pregnancies and the possible viable therapeutic strategies

Vaginal infections

Premise Similar to glans infections, vaginal infections - bacterial, fungal or viral - involve the female genitals, causing more or less significant damage. In most cases, pathogens do not exclusively infect the vagina: in fact, the infection often tends to spread to adjacent areas, especially in the case of diagnostic delay and lack of specific care


Abundant menstruation "Hypermenorrhea" is synonymous with copious menstruation, often associated with menorrhagia (menstrual bleeding that exceeds the canonical 7-8 days) and metrorrhagia (unexpected vaginal blood loss during the intermenstrual phase). The link between hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia and metrorrhagia is very close, so much so that it is often very difficult to distinguish the three phenomena


Poor menstruation Hypomenorrhea is a medical term that denotes scarcely abundant and generally short periods ; represents the phenomenon contrary to hypermenorrhea, and is often associated with an elongation of the intermenstrual period (oligomenorrhea). Types of hypomenorrhea First of all, the primary hypomenorrhea must be distinguished from the secondary one: in the first case, the hypomenorrhea appears due to an alteration of the uterine anatomical structure (rare probability) or following a hypoplasia of the uterus

Leucorrhoea, pregnancy

Definition of pregnancy leukorrhea The term leucorrhoea expresses a physiological condition characterized by the vaginal discharge of whitish leaks: the phenomenon occurs in women of all ages, but when it occurs during the expected wait it is called leukorrhea gravidarum. Vaginal discharge Sometimes, the intensity of the pregnancy leukorrhea is such as to create considerable discomfort and discomfort to the woman: vaginal secretions are more dense, with a color ranging from intense white to transparent


Abundant menstruation "Menorrhagia" is a medical term that indicates a particularly abundant and abnormal menstrual blood loss; the bleeding can also extend beyond the physiological term of the menstrual period, which in the presence of menorrhagia - in addition to being more intense - is often even more painful